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    Pioneer Portuguese Families of the Sacramento Area

Surnames
 A-B

Surnames
 C-D

Surnames
 E-F

Surnames
 G-L

Surnames
 M-N

Surnames
 O-R

Surnames
 S

Surnames
 T-Z


Surnames E To F

MANUEL I. ENOS was born in 1853 in the Azores, and came to the U.S. with his mother in 1872, settling first near Freeport where he was one of the early day hop growers and later became roadmaster of Yolo County. In that position he was responsible for the building and maintenance of the early day levees.

Later he moved to Sacramento to enter the grocery business at 15th and Q Streets. With his two daughters and two sons working in the store, he made deliveries to Freeport via a toll road, beginning on Sutterville Road and weaving around the Pocket district. He retired in 1912.

He was a leader in the Portuguese community, having been past president of the IDES and UPEC; was a member for many years of the Democratic Central Committee of Sacramento; and was prominent in the work of establishing St. Elizabeths Church in 1912.

He died September 13, 1927 as a result of a hit-and-run driver in Oakland while on his way to an IDES convention in Petaluma.

Son ALFRED N. ENOS was to follow in his father's footsteps, he too becoming a leader in Portuguese circles. Starting as a clerk and delivery boy in his fathers grocery store at a very early age, he and his brother William drove the horse and wagon and made the grocery deliveries to Freeport and other locations in Sacramento. Later Alfred was to run the grocery store after his fathers retirement, operating what was then called the corner grocery during the Depression years through the thirties. He later became Constable of Sacramento Township and was the last constable to serve Sacramento County after the advent of the Municipal Court system.

It was during his service with the County of Sacramento that he suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and died February 1947, age 56. He was president of the Southside Improvement Club in 1939, and had much to do with the centennial celebration of that year, particularly the establishing of a replica of the 1849 City of Sacramento in Southside Park.

Alfred had one child, Alfred R. Enos, who also was active in Portuguese and other civic affairs. He served in all offices of the the Cabrillo Civic Club, including president. His business career covered 44 years in banking, starting in 1937 as a bank messenger with the Bank of America, and culminating in 1966 as manager of the Citrus Heights branch. Before his retirement in 1981 he was the oldest banker in point of continuous service in Sacramento.

WILLIAM H. ENOS, Manuel Enos' other son, established a costuming firm in 1909 after leaving the grocery store. This was the period before motion pictures, and there were many stage shows in northern California. William would travel by horse and wagon and sometimes by stage coach and supply the costumes necessary to produce these shows. His business expanded several times from a beginning at 1110-1/2 K Street, to different locations in Sacramento, and he went into manufacturing of clothing items, selling of women's ready-to-wear, and a complete womens department store. The firms success is more fully described in Chapter 10.

[Alfred R. Enos]

FRANK ENOS was born in 1872 in the Clarksburg area on his fathers 27-acre ranch on Babel Slough, which was later sold to Manuel Fonts. His father was Frank Enos Sr., who was born in Pico, and settled here in the early days. Frank Sr. was married twice, having Frank Jr. and Joe by the first marriage, and Annie and Louie by the second marriage. His first wife, Mary, died in 1875 at age 38; his second, also named Mary, died in 1931. Frank Sr. died December 29, 1888 at age 50.

Following the death of Frank Sr., Frank Jr. and his brother Joe inherited the ranch, and Joe bought out Frank. Frank left the ranch when he was about 18 and moved to town to start a grocery store at 10th and 0 St. on the northwest corner. Joe and Frank were in partnership in this store, Enos Brothers Grocery, for about ten years. Frank then moved the business to 4th and L Street on the northwest corner, buying out Joe at that time. It was known as Frank Enos Grocery Store and Bar. Macys is now located on the site.

A story is told that in about 1915 Joe Prady of the Pocket, who sometimes tended bar and sold groceries in the Enos store, was working behind the bar when Manuel Vieira Pedro was showing Joe his pistol. The gun accidentally discharged, shooting Joe, the bullet passing through his body. Joe was carried to the home of Frank Enos, who had the only automobile in the area, for transport to the hospital. Joe recovered.

Frank married MINNIE BROWN, daughter of John K King" Brown from Clarksburg, about 1897. They bought a home at 2419 L St. In 1913 they moved to the Riverside area, buying 3.7 acres, which included a home, from Frank George, who was married to Mary Corey, and whose parents' home was across the road from the George property and home.

Frank started a service station about 1921 and had three gas pumps. It was the only service station in the Riverside/Pocket area. The nearest other station was Ed Fortado's gas station at Riverside and Y Street. The business continued until about 1940.

Frank Enos Jr. died in 1961, and Minnie in 1964. They had three sons, Alfred, Melvin, and Louis.

[Melvin E. Enos]

Joe ENOS was born in Hawaii in 1885, one of six children of Andrew and Mary Enos from Sao Miguel, the Azores, who had gone to Hawaii five years earlier as contract laborers to work on the sugar plantations there. His parents lived there three years and then sailed for the mainland, Joe observing his second birthday aboard ship.

The family went directly to West Sacramento, where Andrew Enos worked on farms at a dollar a day in the summertime and $20 a week in the winter. When the children got old enough, they picked hops down on the river. In the wintertime, when the area was all under water, they had to go to Sacramento to get groceries, rowing across the river, usually to a point below the Brickyard in the Pocket district.

Their first home was directly across from the Brickyard, on the Buckman-Carrigan ranch in Yolo County. The children went to their first school in the West Sacramento district along the river below Chicory Bend, walking a mile to class.

Because of the winter-flooded land in the area immediately to the south of West Sacramento, most of it under water, there was no industry there to offer employment, so Joe and all the young people worked at the Brickyard, going across the river in rowboats.

In 1905 Joe Enos was fireman on the dredger Yolo that went up as far as the Elkhorn district above Bryte on the way to Woodland; served as fireman two seasons on the snag boat Caesar that pulled the Yolo; and in 1907 was fireman aboard a steamboat that tawed a big dredger up from Rio Vista and through the overflow land in Yolo County to work on the washed-out Southern Pacific tracks near the present Yolo Bypass. Although he was never able to swim, he spent 20 years on the water at dredging and steamboating.

In September 1921 he married the former Hazel Rabello of West Sacramento and gave up his river career to settle down here. He went into the trucking business in 1922, and in 1931 started the first garbage-collection business in West Sacramento. He sold it in 1945. Following that he was a field man for Jensen Crop-Dusting Service, and until 1953 was for eight years in charge of the West Sacramento Water Co. He then went to work for the Government at the Army Reserve Center near the Signal Depot.

His daughter was Margaret Campanella Wilson, who was active in the Cabrillo Club. She had a son, Donald Campanella.

Two other brothers were Louie and Manuel Enos.

I MANUEL ENOS was born in Hawaii in 1881, and worked at a variety of jobs in the Sacramento area, including on the dredgers, before he married EMELIA LEAL SILVEIRA on July 19, 1912, widow of Jose Silveira, and took over the Silveira farming operation in the Pocket, helping to raise the three Silveira children, Mary Agnes (Mamie), Tony, and Manuel Silveira. At the time of their marriage, Emelia was 40 and Manuel was 31.

In addition to farming, Manuel in the off-season worked at other jobs, including on the various haypress operations in the area, and at the Buffalo Brewery.

Manuel Enos was several times elected Clerk of the Lisbon School District, and was an enthusiastic Sacramento Solons baseball fan. In the days before electricity was installed on the farm he had a crystal set with which he listened to the baseball games at night. Emelia would be chattering away and then suddenly realize that the earphones kept him from hearing a word she said and she would exclaim in protest.

Manuel and Emelia supplemented the meager farm income by selling at the Farmers' Free Market in Sacramento such items as cut flowers from the garden, Portuguese cheeses, eggs, and rabbits. They had as many as 300 white New Zealand rabbits at one time housed under two huge fig trees. Barbecued rabbit was always a feature of family gatherings on the farm, along with homemade hand-churned ice cream.

They had one of the few telephones in the area, on an eight-party line. Sometimes when a salesman phoned with whom she didn't want to talk, Emelia would say in her limited English, Nobody home!" and hang up the phone. Manuel and Emelia raised Emelia's grandson, Elmer Holmes, who stayed on the ranch when the rest of the Holmes family moved down to Oakland.

Emelia Silveira Enos died December 25, 1943, and Manuel Enos died in 1962 at age 81. (See SILVEIRA and HOLMES.)

[The East Yolo Record, May 9, 1957; Lionel Holmes]

Jose FACHA was born in Flores, and spent his early adult life at sea as a whaler for ten years, sailing out of Nova Scotia. One night he went out to harpoon a whale and it tore his boat to pieces. He couldn't swim, but he caught hold of part of the boat and he was saved. His ship sailed for San Francisco around the Horn, taking 30 days. Upon arrival there, he jumped ship and went to Weaverville in Trinity County to work in the gold mines.

He became naturalized in 1873, and homesteaded 160 acres in Red Bluff. However, on the doctor's advice to change climate because of sickness from ulcers, he returned to the Azores in 1878. He was 44 years of age, and there he married MARIA SERPA, age 20. He became the second largest farmer in Flores. He farmed in shares on the property of others, doing the work, cultivating and planting seed, then sharing half of the crop. His sons worked hard, too. The oldest, Joe, started working for the government at age 13, hauling rocks to build roads.

Jose wanted to return to the United States, but his wife didn't want to. She was afraid of the Indians, believing rumors that they killed and ate the white people. But Jose wanted his children to go to America so they could claim citizenship by virtue of his naturalization, and they all came to America before reaching age 21. Had they remained in the Azores after age 21 they could have been drafted into Portuguese military service.

Jose was a patriotic American, and used to make an American fiag out of paper. Whenever there was a celebration in Flores, Jose would tell his children that they had to carry the American flag along with the Portuguese flag. His wife, Maria, was a devout church-goer. One day she came- home from church and, alarmed, told her husband that he should burn his American citizenship papers because the priest had said anybody with American citizenship papers wouldn't go to heaven!

Both Jose and Maria died in Flores, he at age 79 in September 1912, and Maria at age 79.

They had eight children: Joe, Ventura, Alfred, Evangelina, Mary, Filomena, Joaquim and Antonio. Four sons and two daughters came to America and California. Alfred stayed in Nevada.

Two of Jose Facha's sisters, Anna Nunes and Mary Frates, also immigrated to California in the mid-1800s, having been sent for by Jose. Mary lived in Red Bluff, and Anna lived in Cottonwood, Trinity County. She died at age 108. When Jose had returned to the Azores, he left some cattle with his sisters. Whenever they sold a cow they sent Jose a $20 gold piece, which they called an Aguia (eagle).

Son ANTONIO FACHA was 18 years old when he immigrated to America in June 1912, coming as an American citizen by virtue of his father's naturalization in 1873. He was born December 10, 1893 in Santa Cruz, Flores.

Tony Facha went to Elko, Nevada, and worked on a cattle ranch for five years. On one occasion two young ranchworkers stole his shaving equipment. He went into the ranch house to get his gun to ride after them, and the gun fell to the floor and went off, hitting his right leg and knee. Instead of going after the boys he went to the doctor, whose treatment of the bullet wound with iodine was worse than the gunshot. The doctor told him to return in five days, but he never did.

When the United States entered World War I, Tony went into the army from September 1917 to April 22, 1919, serving in France and Germany. He returned to the Elko ranch after the war, rejoining two brothers, Joe and Fred. Joe was the ranch manager of the ranch. Fred later bought a 1,500-acre ranch 40 miles north of Elko, and Tony later became ranch foreman.

He decided to go to Newcastle to visit his brother Ventura Facha and sister Angelina Amaro, and stayed to work on fruit ranches around Newcastle, including that of Constantine Lopes. That same year he invested his wartime savings in a small fruit ranch, putting $3,000 down. He moved onto the property, plowed, pruned, sprayed, and planted more fruit trees. The seller of the property had told him that it had produced 1,500 boxes of fruit that year and could produce more. Then the following spring neighbors told Tony that the seller had lied about the production figures, and on checking at the shipping house he found that only 800 boxes had been shipped, not 1,500. He sued, but lost the case.

He knew then that he couldn't make a living on the property, so he left it, and went to work picking plums, pears, peaches and quince.

Meanwhile, he had gotten acquainted with ANNA KING, and they married on January 21, 1921, in Auburn. Tony then worked on the fruit ranch of his wifes godparents, Mary Z. Perry and her brother Manuel L. Perry, who had raised Anna. Anna worked in the fruit-pack-ing house until age 64, when Tony insisted she quit, much against her will. Tony told her, "If you try to work there, I'm going to tell the manager not to give you a job." Anna died on April 22, 1967.

Tony and Anna had five children: Dorothy Christensen, Genevieve Sacarino, Clarence, Richard, and Stanley Facha.

Anna's godparents donated a 60-by-108 sq.ft. lot to the three Portuguese lodges in Newcastle in 1917 to build a lodge meeting hall, Newcastle Portuguese Hall, which is now a State Point of Historic Interest and is on the National Register of Historic Places. (See Chapter 11.)

Tony Facha was very active in the veterans organizations, being commander of the American Legion post in 1972, commander of the World War I Veterans in 1974, and grand marshall of the Veterans Day parade in August in 1982.

He and his third wife, Gussie, live in Auburn.

Joe Amaro, who had gone to Nevada with Tony's brother Fred Facha, later settled in Gold Hill, Placer County. He had married one of Tonys sisters, and after she died in 1918 he married another sister.

[Tony Facha]

ANTONE MACHADO FAGUNES, SR. was born in 1842 in Sao Jorge, and immigrated to the United States in 1862. He lived in the Lisbon District of Yolo County in the Babel Slough area, where he fished for many years, and also farmed a bit on small parcels of land. His home was near the levee.

He married MARY AMELIA LARANJEIRA, who was also born in Sao Jorge in 1862.

She entered the U.S. in 1880, and they were married shortly thereafter. They had two children born in Clarksburg: Antone M. Fagunes Jr., on December 23, 1887, and Mamie Fagunes.

ANTONE M. FAGUNES, Jr. followed his fathers footsteps as a commercial fisherman, fishing in the Sacramento River with his father at age 12, and continuing until 1952, at which time commercial fishing from the river was prohibited. He also farmed a little, owning ten acres in Freeport, three-quarters of a mile south of the town. He also farmed on a share-rental basis.

Antone Jr. married MARGARET HELEN Jacinto (Maggie) of Clarksburg on June 27, 1910, the daughter of Jose F. Jacinto of Santo Antonio, Pico, and the former Rosa Valine of the same village. Jose Jacinto entered the U.S. in 1864. Rosa was born in 1858 and died in 1946.

Antone Jr. died May 9, 1972, and his wife Maggie died July 14, 1980. Their children: Antone Edward (Bob), Evelyn Margaret (Sis), Theodore Edmund (Ted), Herman Joseph, Agnes Marie, and Elizabeth Ann (Betty).

The junior Antone Fagunes was skilled in making fish nets, a patient winter pastime when he couldnt fish. One of his homemade nets was given by his son, Herman Fagunes, to the Sacramento History Center. Hermans daughter lives in the family home below Freeport with a huge collection of her grandfather's possession, including intact old farm equipment such as grain and alfalfa-seeding machines, plow, disc, hay wagon, hand saws, and milk separating machine, and many blacksmith items. She also has her grandfathers oak wine barrels, neatly elevated on basement racks made by him.

[Agnes M. Fagunes; Herman Fagunes; Grace Freitas Rose]

ANTONE FERNANDES was born in the Azores in 1857, and settled in the Clarksburg area where he married MARY SOTO, oldest daughter of John and Frances Soto of Clarksburg. Antone bought a ranch near the IDES hall grounds where he and Mary made their home and raised their family.

He farmed his small ranch, and Mary suffered through a number of family illnesses while keeping her children well dressed through her beautiful sewing, and keeping her home spotless. She never had a lawn, but swept her dirt yard smoothly and clear, and was known to have the cleanest yard in the neighborhood.

Their first child, Mamie, was born about 1886; their second, Tony E., in 1888. Then three more sons followed in the 1890s when an epidemic of back diphtheria struck, and in about two weeks Antone and Mary lost their three younger children in succession. At that time Mary's mother, Frances Soto, quickly took Mamie and Tony away from the plagued home to her house, saving the lives of the two older children. Later Antone and Mary had two more sons, Manuel, in 1897, and Clarence, in 1901.

Antone had two brothers and two sisters: MANUEL FERNANDES, who was the father of John Fernandez, the home builder (he was the only one in the family to take the z" spelling of the name); KING FERNANDES (see below), father of Louise Fernandes Silva from the Pocket district; ROSE FERNANDES, who married FRANK FONTES from Natomas. They had no children but raised a godchild, Edward Ventura; and MARY FERNANDES DOMINGUES, who lived near St. Elizabeth's Church in Sacramento.

Mary Soto Fernandes had 10 sisters and five brothers. (See SOTO.)

Antone Fernandes died September 23, 1951 at age 94, and Mary Soto Fernandes died August 19, 1944, at age 79.

Their daughter MAMIE FERNANDES married Joe LEWIS, and made their home in the Natomas District where Joe had a farm. They raised three children, Joe, Jack, and Lenore Lewis Dutra.

Son TONY E. FERNANDES married MABEL MIGUEL. They lived in Sacramento, where Tony worked for PG&E. Their children: Irene, Thelma Stone, and Maj. Edward A. Fernandes of the U.S. Air Force.

Son MANUEL D. FERNANDES, called "Mannax, married MINNIE Jacinto of Freeport, and they made their home in Sacramento off Land Park Drive. Manuel operated a hay and grain trucking business for 40 years. Their children: Verna Bonetti, Norma Eramo, and Doris Jean Marquardsen.

Son CLARENCE FERNANDES married MARY SILVA from the Pocket, and had two children, Eleanor Muller, and Ronald Fernandes. They first lived alongside Clarences parents home in Clarksburg, and later moved to Sacramento.

[Grace Freitas Rose; Anna Soto Freitas]

KING FERNANDES goaquim) was born about 1863 in Ribeirinha, Pico, the son of Joaquim and Maria Fernandes, and came to America in 1878. He married MARIA PERRY (Perreira) who was born December 12, 1871, in Pedro Miguel, Faial. She came to America in 1884 when she was 12 years old, together with her mother, stepfather and her two younger sisters. The family settled in West Sacramento.

Joaquim and Maria settled in the Freeport area of Sacramento County where they bought a ranch of unknown acreage. They then purchased their 75-acre ranch in the Pocket in 1906, located adjacent to and north of the now Garcia Park and boat landing. Joaquim ranched there until his death in 1922 at age 59. After his death Maria leased the ranch for farming until her daughter and son-in-law purchased the ranch in 1946.

Daughter LOUISA FERNANDES, born June 20, 1899 in Freeport, married John MARIA SILVA ("Joao Maria"), who was born in Santo Amaro, Pico. The other children were Joaquim, Joseph and Mary who died as children, Joseph, Mary, and Alfred. Maria Perry Fernan-dez died May 1945, age 73. (See SILVA.) Joseph was killed in France in World War I. Son Joaquim took the spelling Fernandez, with a "z", but his siblings retained the "s" spelling.

Mildred Fernandez, granddaughter of Joaquim, was a graduate of Chico State College in 1934. Her first teaching job was at the Upper Lisbon School, teaching all eight grades from 1934 to 1940. From 1940 to 1950 she taught in Antioch and San Francisco. In 1951, during the Korean War, she went to Japan for her next teaching job which was with the Department of Army Dependent Schools located 20 miles outside of Tokyo. She was principal and taught first, second and third grades to American Army children for one year. While teaching there she met her husband, Edward Calay, who was a pilot with the Air Force. After marrying, and during his traveling assignments, she taught in Michigan and Guam. She retired in 1976 after 22 years of teaching.

[Thelma Silva Rose; Margie Silva; Mildred Fernandez Calay]

John FERNANDEZ was born in the Azores in 1887, the son of Manuel and Rose gacinto) Fernandez, who immigrated to the U.S. in 1890 when John was three years old, settling in the Clarksburg area of Yolo County. John was the brother of Mary Domingues Azevedo of Sacramento, and of Rose Fernandez, who married Frank Fontz of Natomas.

John married MAMIE FONTES, daughter of Fortunato and Frances Fontes. (See FONTES.)

John Fernandez was in the construction business for 45 years, including 25 years as owner of the Sierra Builders firm. He built more than a thousand homes in Sacramento, including in such subdivisions as Freeport Manor, Freeport Village, Coloma Terrace, Cambridge Heights, Cordova Gardens, South Land Park Terrace, South Land Park Hills Unit No. 40, and Hollywood Park. He also constructed the Raleys store that was located on 24th Street and Fruitridge Road, along with several other office buildings in the Sacramento area. He built his own residence at 3138 Land Park Drive.

Mamie and John had five sons: twins Raymond E. and Ralph D., Norman J., and twins James W. and Jack T. Fernandez. Raymond lost his life on a flight mission off Alaskan waters during World War II. (See MEDEIROS.)

[Grace Freitas Rose; newspaper obituary]

ANTONIO FERREIRA was born August 14, 1892, in Villa Cortez de Serra, Portugal. His wife, the former MARIA AUGUSTA FERNANDES, was born in the same town April 7, 1890. The town is located just north and east of the center of Portugal not far from the border of Spain. Tony and Augusta both worked on the farms of their parents as children, and had minimal education. They married July 12, 1919 in Portugal, and in June 1920 Tony left for the U.S.

He settled first in New Bedford, Mass., where he had relatives who helped him get a job in a wool-claiming mill. Once settled, he sent for Augusta, who arrived in October 1920 and got a job in the same mill.

In May 1921 they moved to Folsom, Calif., where Augustas sister and brother-in-law, Anna and Joe Cabral, were living. The Cabrals later moved to Manteca, but the Ferreiras stayed in Folsom for the rest of their lives.

Tony worked for the Sacramento County Road Dept. building roads, and they lived on Mormon St. in Folsom in a house that has since been tom down. In 1922-23 he worked for the Grey Wing Gold Mine on Green Valley Road as a cleanup man. In 1934 he went to work for the Natomas Dredgers and remained there until he retired in 1960.

In 1934 they purchased their family home at 1015 Figueroa St. They had two children: Mary J. Ferreira Griffith, born September 21, 1921 and died April 8, 1973; and Joe Ferreira, born November 13, 1923 and now living in Rancho Cordova.

Tony Ferreira died April 20, 1965 and Augusta died February 19, 1968. They are both buried in St. John's Cemetery in Folsom.

[Joe and Rosemary Ferreira]

LAURO Jose FERREIRA was born in Calheta de Nesquim, Pico, Azores, on November 14, 1883. He came to California in 1900 before he was quite 17 years old, wanting to come to America to be with his two older brothers and also to get away from going into the Portuguese army.

He joined his brothers who were farming asparagus on Grand Island, working for them until their lease was up. One brother went to work for the River Lines and one brother married and went to live in Antioch. Lauro rented a ranch from Joe Green and continued to raise asparagus, which he shipped to San Francisco by the River Line boats. In the winter they had to help build the levee to keep the water from flooding the island. He continued farming asparagus until 1916. On August 9, 1908, he married ROSA BRUM, who came from Pico the year before. She was not quite 16, and Lauro was not quite 25. By 1916 there were three children. Lauro's lease was up then. He had heard about the Natomas Co. reclaiming the swampland above Sacramento, so he went up there to check.

The levee was just about completed then, and Lauro decided it would be a good place to raise his family. He found 40 acres that had just been cleared of brush and oak and bought it

from the Natomas Co. He moved his family to Sacramento where they lived for about six months while Manuel Freitas built a barn and a big tank house. The barn was first because Lauro had to have a place for the horses. There were no small tractors then and he did all his farming with horses.

The family moved out to the ranch in 1917 and lived in the tank house for about a year while Freitas worked on the house whenever weather permitted. The tank house was a three-story affair. The water tank was on the very top, the bedroom was in the middle, and the bottom floor was the garage but was used for the kitchen while the house was being built.

There was no electricity. There was a windmill to pump the water into the tank on top of the tank house. When there was no wind everyone took turns pumping water by hand.

Lauro planted a small pear orchard, and raised peas and beans. The ground was new and strong and produced a good crop every year.

Lauro and Rosa were happy to have their own place. On Grand Island they rented, but here they made payments when their crops were sold, and one day it would be their own. They worked hard, aided by the the older children, who also worked in the field.

More children kept coming until there were eight, four boys and four girls. All of them attended the American Basin School in Natomas, four miles away. They walked most of the time as there were no buses then. In the winter when the horses were not working in the fields the children rode in a buggy through the muddy roads. The first school house burned, and classes were held in a turkey shed converted to a school room until the second American Basin School was built on Elkhorn Road where the Metro Airport is now. By that time the roads were being graveled and electricity was coming into the district.

When the older children graduated from grammar school in 1925 and wanted to go to high school, they had to walk four or five miles to the Elkhorn Ferry. In the winter they drove a horse and buggy. They had to cross the river and catch the electric training coming from Woodland every morning. In the winter when the river was high the ferry couldnt cross the river so they skipped school on those occasions, sometimes for days and weeks at a time during bad winters. It cost five dollars a month for school children to ride the train.

In those days the roads were very bad in Natomas. In the winter when Lauro had to go to town or to church on Sundays he had to hook a horse to the car to pull it out to the Power Line Road. He then had to cut the ruts with a shovel to fit his car into the ruts on the main road. He would tie the horse on the corner there and repeat the process on the return trip. He lived about a half mile down the lane which is now Bayou Way. But it did not discourage him and he always tried to transport some of the children to St. Elizabeth's church on Sundays.

Later Lauro bought another 40 acres adjoining his ranch and then another 20 down the road. He also share-rented from the Natomas Company.

By then the children were growing up and helping on the ranch. Manuel, the oldest son, about 15, drove the Fordson tractor that Lauro had bought to work the ground. With the help of a tractor and the horses, Lauro began leasing more ground and raising alfalfa besides beans and peas.

Lauro was very active in the UPEC, being a charter member of the Ryde council, which he helped to organize around 1910, and served as secretary for several years. He would go down to Ryde every month even after moving to Natomas, taking the stage until later when he bought a model T Ford.

He loved his lodge. Rosa, his wife, made many dinners when they lived in Ryde whenever the grand officers came from Oakland for visits, and Lauro went with them to get new members. He was also active in and donated to the Holy Ghost celebration on 6th and W Streets in Sacramento.

In 1939 Rosa died. In 1949 Lauro went on a trip to Pico, visiting with his family there. He enjoyed it, but he was happy to return home where he could look around and see his children and his property. He retired and lived in town with his second wife, ANNA PAULINO LOPES, widow of Joseph Thomas Lopes and sister of Manuel Paulino. He turned over to his sons his property and another 500 acres of leased land the Joe Bettencourt ranch on Elkhorn Road and they continued farming in Natomas. (See LOPES.)

Lauro became a naturalized American citizen on March 7, 1955. He died March 1971 at age 88. There are four generations of Ferreiras still living in Natomas.

Now the Ferreira home ranch belongs to Sacramento County, purchased for Metro Airport. But the house is still there.

Lauro and Rosa's children: Mary, who married Candido Rosa; Manuel, who married Emma Machado from Oakley and later, after divorce, married Helen Nager; Marguerite, who married Wilbert Rosa and then Edward A. Stalzer (Wilbert later married Lorrene Nevis Dutra); Delores, who married Manuel Barandas (See BARANDAS); Lauro Jr., who married Josephine Barandas, and had two children; Joe, who married Helen Shifflett from West Sacramento, and had five children; Alfred, who married Mary Bettencourt from Lincoln (both are now deceased), and had two children; and Rosemary, who married Richard Silva, and had three daughters. (See ROSA.)

Three of the Ferreira brothers Manuel, Joe, and Lauro Jr. farmed together for several years. Manuel (Mac), born in 1912, died in 1981. He loved to fish, and spent every spare moment in his boat moored on the river near the home he built on the Garden Highway in 1958. Joseph continued living in Natomas with his wife Helen upon retirement. Lauro Jr. and Josephine lived at the site of the first burned-out American Basin School where his older brothers and sisters attended. The new American Basin School was built farther down the road, later absorbed by the Metropolitan Airport.

[Mary Ferreira Rosa]

Joe FERRY pose Silveira de Faria) was born September 6, 1866, in Castelo Branco, Faial. He left there at age 14 on a whaler and traveled as far as Australia. He came to California as a young man and worked on the railroad for a while.

He met LUIZA E. FRATES in 1896 while she was living with her sister, Mary Armes, in Prairie City, outside Folsom. Luiza had immigrated to the United States at age 19. She had gone to her sisters place to marry Jose's brother Manuel. But she liked Joe better, so after knowing him for about a year they were married on April 24, 1897, in Auburn. They were first cousins. Joe became naturalized that year in Auburn.

They moved to Folsom and lived there six years while Joe worked in hydraulic mining. They had three children while living in Folsom: Florence Gularte, Rose Jacinto, and Joseph; and four more after moving to Newcastle: Mary, Louis, Katherine Serpa, and Louise. He retired from fruit farming in 1945.

Joe Ferry died April 30, 1949; Louise died August 4, 1972 at age 96.

[Katherine Serpa; Rhoda Nelthorpe Morillas]

FORTUNA FONTES was born June 29, 1864, in Ribeirinha, Pico, and immigrated to the U.S. at age 18, settling in the Clarksburg area where he worked on his brother Manuel's ranch for about three years. He also had a sister, Maria Josephine Fontes Machado.

He then went into the commercial fishing business on the Sacramento River for about eight years, along with threshing wheat, barley and other crops in the summertime. He then

l Were All Cousins - 227

moved to Sacramento where he was employed by Friend & Terry Lumber Co. at Front and S Streets for more than 40 years, first stacking lumber, and then as a sales clerk.

Later he also took on a part-time job at a nursery, where he developed a great interest in floriculture and gardening, specializing in tree slipping and grafting. He was proud of his productive crop of fruit trees that he experimented with and developed in his yard. He created his own Christmas decoration house displays, for which he received two first-place ribbons, two second-place, and one honorable-mention ribbon.

In 1964 a Sacramento Bee article described 90-year-old Fortuna in a headline as a Nimble Nonagenarian as Trim as His Lawn and Hedge. At almost 90 he added and painted a bedroom to his home. At 91 the Bee interviewed Fortuna regarding his longevity, and he stated as he reached for his lawn mower: "I don't have a special diet, I sleep without any trouble, I dont need eyeglasses, and I don't have any aches or pains."

He said that all his relatives lived past 80. "I guess we all are pretty tough." He also said that he didn't smoke, "But when I was a fisherman I started to chew tobacco. It smelled good, and I thought it would be a good idea, until one day I swallowed some and got so sick to my stomach. I never tried it again!"

In the interview Fortuna related stories of the steamers that plied the river in the early days. "I once tried to hitch a ride on a steamer while fishing, but I got pulled right out of my boat in the water. I had on hip boots and they filled with water. I thought I was a goner, but a friend fishing in my boat grabbed me and hauled me in. It felt like I had half of the Sacramento River water in my boots."

Fortuna married FRANCES BITTENCOURT in the old St. Rose Church at 7th and K Street, Sacramento, on October 19, 1891. She was the daughter of Joao Silva and Maria Silveira "Piloto" Bittencourt of Clarksburg. The newlyweds first lived on 3rd Street in the Southside area, then around 1917 moved to X Street between 16th and 17th, near the traction line. Their final move later was to 2509 Castro Way off Y Street, where they lived for many years.

Fortuna Fontes died November 26, 1958 at age 92, and Frances died September 1, 1964, at age 90. They had been married 67 years.

They had three children: Mamie, who married John Fernandez, a Sacramento building contractor with Sierra Builders; Ida, a beautiful girl who married Leo Brown, and died young during the World War I flu epidemic when she was pregnant; and Melba, who married Cyril Hackett, and had two sons. She owned and operated the Fleurette Beauty Shops at 25th and Broadway, the only Portuguese-owned beauty shop in Sacramento for many years. After being widowed, she married Earl Taylor, and moved to Gait.

[Grace Freitas Rose; Sacramento BeeJ

MANUEL J. FONTS (Manuel J. Machado) was born in the Azores in 1859 in Ribeirinha, Pico. He took the name Fonts while living in the Azores. His neighbor was also named Manuel Machado, and there was much confusion with mail. He was renting the Fonts house so he decided to take that name to avoid confusion.

He immigrated to the United States at age 15 in 1874. Upon reaching Sacramento he first worked as an independent commercial fisherman on the river and lived on a scow. He then worked on ranches along the river for 11 years.

He went back to the Azores in 1885 and married MARIA MACHADO (same name), born in 1865, and daughter of Albert Joseph Machado. He returned to America alone to work in the Freeport/Clarksburg area, and then went back to the Azores to be with his wife, staying there until 1898 when he again returned to the Sacramento area alone.

In 1902 he made his fourth and last trip back to the Azores, this time to bring his wife, her father Albert Joseph Machado, and their seven children: Mary, Rosa, Anna, Manuel, Albert (died as a child), Silvina, Myrtle, and Virginia.

The family arrived in New Bedford, and then traveled by train to San Francisco on August 25, 1906, arriving while San Francisco was still burning from the earthquake. Manuel went into partnership with his cousin, Manuel Machado (nicknamed the Bean King") on a 400-acre ranch on Babel Slough. The family moved into the house on the slough, the same house Manuel Fonts, Jr. lived in in 1983. They did dairying and farming. The partnership lasted about a year, until the flood of 1907.

The family then moved to the Manica ranch about 3/4 mile south of the Freeport Bridge on the Yolo side. They farmed there about three years then moved to Sacramento in 1910, making their home for a short time on 4th between S and T, and then moving to S between 3rd and 4th next to the John Contente Grocery Store on the northeast corner of 3rd and S.

At one time he operated a very large dairy in the Clarksburg area. He retired in Sacramento.

Mary died in 1964 at age 99; Manuel Sr. died in 1943 at age 84. Marys father lived with the family until his death in 1915 at age 94.

MANUEL Joseph FONTS, Jr., one of the leaders of the Portuguese colony in the Clarksburg District, was born in the Azores June 29, 1892. He began schooling there, then spent an additional year in school in Clarksburg, where he had gone at age 14 to help his father who was farming the George Wall place.

In 1910 he drove the delivery meat market truck for the Belevedere Meat Market located at 4th and S, and partially owned by Jerry Jaksich Sr. (previous owner of Faustino Silva's slaughter house in the Pocket). Manuel and Jerry would go out and kill a cow, take it to the market for butchering, then deliver the meat to the customers.

In 1911 Manuel worked for five or six months as a deliveryman for the Manuel Machado South Side Dairy, which was a delivery service. He worked one winter about 1911 or 1912 for John Fernandes, a building contractor who had a team of horses and hauled sand from the river to fill in the area around S and T Streets and 4th and 5th Streets to raise the level of the land in order to build homes. John Fernandes and his brother had been employed to help clean up debris after the 1906 San Francisco eathquake. The Fernandeses were cousins of the Machado family.)

Starting in 1913 and for about a year Manuel worked on the river sternwheel freight boat Colusa as a deckhand. The boat was moored in Sacramento and made a weekly trip between Colusa and San Francisco, with a stop in Sacramento on Saturday so the hands could be with their families on the weekend. He worked on the Colusa until May 1914. In the fall of 1914 he worked on the Frank Azevedo haypress near Babel Slough in Freeport.After that he returned to the Freeport/Clarksburg area to work for Manuel Gabriel and Joe Machado (partners and brothers-in-law).

From 1915 to 1917 he worked with his cousin, Manuel Machado, in Natomas. When Manuel Fonts Jr., was a very young man he worked on the Frank Lewis haypress in the Pocket. When not working he lived in Sacramento with his parents. He also worked on the Joe Borges haypress in Broderick. He was working for Manuel Gabriel when he met ELVIRA SILVEIRA, who was living in the home of Gabriel, her half-brother. Elvira was born in the Azores August 8, 1898, the daughter of Gabriel and Mariana Silveira. She had arrived in Sacramento in August 1915 from Santa Amaro, Pico, with her cousins, Victor Dias Silva and Manuel Nunes, the shipbuilder. After a courtship of about a year, Manuel Fonts Jr., and Elvira married in Sacramento on August 25, 1917.

Elvira's father, a seafaring man, died in the Azores on August 1, 1915. Her mother, Mariana Silveira, had come to Clarksburg in 1917 with daughters Marie and Gabriela and son Gabriel to be with Elvira and Manuel. Mariana Silveira died June 12, 1936.

Manuel and Elvira Fonts had three children: Albert, born in Sacramento on October 10, 1918, and who, after graduation from Clarksburg High School, went to assist his father on the home ranch; and Edward and Adeline, twins born in Sacramento March 4, 1923.

In 1919 Manuel Fonts Jr. leased the 500-acre Parson ranch in the Holland Land district of Clarksburg, and ranched there until 1929. He then returned to the Babel Slough ranch which was his first home and purchased 27 acres from Joe Enos, brother of Frank Enos who owned the Riverside gas station. He remodeled the farm house and lived there until his death on July 10, 1986.

In 1944 he bought 40 acres of the 80-acre Weatherbee ranch which was previously owned by the Soto family and sold to Weatherbee about 1939 or 1940. Manuels parcel contained the old Soto saloon and a home. Manuel had plans to remodel the saloon and put in groceries and liquor, but his plans never materialized. He tore the building down, but the house remained. His younger son, Eddie, and his wife made their home there while Manuel still owned the land. The acreage is next to and north of St. Josephs Church. Ray Baliel, who worked for Weathberbee, owned the other 40 acres of the ranch. Manuel's oldest son Albert owned and ranched the acreage south of the Freeport Bridge on the Yolo side.

When the original Camellia City Band formed about 1911 Manuel signed up to play trumpet, but because of his long working hours he was never able to play at any affairs with the band.

Manuel and his wife Elvira donated all the knotty pine interior paneling for the IDES Hall in Freeport and he helped with the remodeling of the hall in the early 1940s.

[Manuel Fonts Jr.; History of Yolo County, 1940]

FRANK E. FORTADO was born in Faial, married FRANCES DUTRA ENOS from the same island, and both immigrated to the United States when Frank was 21 years old. Frances was the daughter of Ignacia (Nancy) Dutra Enos, and sister of Frances Dutra Soto.

They crossed the country slowly via the southern route, stopping along the way for Frances to give birth to a child while Frank worked to earn expenses to continue their travels west. At one point these immigrants from the balmy Azores found themselves in Texas during a tornado, which the frightened couple rode out in storm cellars.

Eventually they settled in the Clarksburg area of Yolo County, where Frank worked for about ten years before buying a farm in Freeport, just south of Florin Road, where they grew grapes. But the soil was poor. Some called it foxtail land" or "the plains. Then came the Depression, and they struggled to survive, managing with the help of contributions from their children, all single.

There were four cMdren at first Frank Jr., Mary, Grace, and Anthony and then years later came Lawrence, whom the others helped to raise. Lawrence shocked his bachelor brothers and sisters when at age 21 he announced his engagement to marry. "You can't," they exclaimed, "you're still a baby!

But Lawrence did, marrying Nancy Martello, starting a new family trend when Anthony and Grace followed suit, Anthony marrying Rachel, and Grace marrying Charles Hall. Grace and Charles had a son who died at age five following surgery, and a few years later Charles died. Anthony had one daughter, and Lawrence had two daughters.

When the senior Fortados died, the family sold the ranch and bought a new home in the Colonial Heights area. Grace and Mary worked in canneries, Frank Jr. on farms, Anthony at Aerojet, and Lawrence in the produce business. All are now deceased.

[Anna Soto Freitas; Grace Freitas Rose]

VITAL SILVA FORTADO was born in Faial, and as a young man traveled with a maiden aunt to the East Coast, and then came to California. On November 15, 1897, in the Cathedral at 12th and K Streets, he married MARY AGNES SILVA, oldest daughter of John Raposa Silva and the former Anna Vargas.

John Raposa Silva, who was born in Pico, sailed from the Azores at age 15 on a whaler around Cape Horn to the Pacific. After a hardship trip to Alaska and a stop in San Francisco, he jumped ship there and eventually reached Yolo County, where farmers gave him work. After marrying Anna Vargas they bought a ranch at Babel Slough in Yolo County and raised six children, one dying in infancy. Mary, the oldest, was 17 when she married Vital.

Vital was employed at the Brickyard, and they lived there in a small house provided by the company. The two oldest of five children of Mary Agnes and Vital were born there before they moved to a 40-acre farm in 1900, where a big two-story frame house with seven rooms was built. The farm was on Riverside Blvd. to the north adjacent to the property of Tony and Maggie Pimentel where the Trap now stands.

Vital died April 23, 1932, age 65; his wife died June 9, 1960, age 80. Their children: Edward M., who died in 1970 at age 72; Minnie A. Simas, who died in 1989; Frank R., who died in 1982, age 81; Emma L., and Gladys I., who died in 1928 at age 23.

Daughter Emma Fortado graduated from Chico Normal School (later Chico State College) in 1922, and that year married Claude T. James, and they built a new home on the ranch in the late 1940s, later renovated as a private school, the Montessori School. The ranch, excluding house and lot, was sold to Walter Fong of the Farmers Market.

Her first teaching job was first and second grades at Sutter School, a one-room school, from 1922 to 1928. Mrs. Campbell, principal at that time, taught the 3rd through 8th grades. Emma quit teaching for a year to have her first child, and resumed teaching at the Lower Lisbon School in April 1929,teaching grades one through four. From around 1931 to 1934 she taught all eight grades at the Upper Lisbon School, quitting that year to have her second child. She later became widowed and did not resume teaching until 1941, returning that year to Sutter Union School to teach first and second grades unti11951 when the school was closed. From 1951 until her retirement in 1962 she taught first grade at Hollywood Park School, for a total of 33-1/2 years.

Meanwhile, in 1953 she got married again, to Daniel J. Buckley.

[Emma Fortado James Buckley]

MIKE FURTADO (Miguel Avila Furtado) was born July 6, 1884, in Pico, the second of six children of Miguel E. Furtado and Maria do Carmo Freitas, granddaughter of the Duke de Avila e Bolama. The senior Furtado died when Mike was 12.

Being asthmatic, Mike was tutored at home by his three uncles, who were priests. When Mike reached age 17, his uncles decided that he should enter the senunary, but he did not want to be a priest. Confiding in his mother, she arranged with Mike's doctor, who was on the island of San Miguel, to book passage on a ship leaving for America. His uncles, thinking he was only going to see the doctor for health reasons, suspected nothing. They were furious when they found they had been tricked.

Upon arriving in the U.S. he went to Rio Vista where his older sister Maria do Carmo Davis was living. After trying his luck working as a fisherman on the river, he moved to Sacramento, where he worked for Calixto Valine as a carpenter.

It was then he met MARY NEVIS, 12-1/2 years his junior, and on November 3, 1912, they were wed at St. Elizabeth's Church, the second couple married in the new church. The following September 26, 1913, a son Ralph was born. Four years later on January 13, 1918, a daughter Helen was born.

At the outbreak of World War I, Mike went to work at the Nunes Bros. shipyard in Sacramento. As the war ended, Mike decided to obtain his general building contractor's license. He was issued license No.40 by the State Contractors License Board.

He was always very active in Portuguese lodges and clubs, especially the IDES, of which he served as State director for several years. He was Secretary of the UPEC and contributed articles to the Portuguese newspapers 0 Imparcial, 0 Liberdade, and the Jornal de Noticias.

Mike was always proud of his U.S. citizenship and was annoyed that so many of his friends had never tried to get theirs. He conceived the idea of a club to help these people become naturalized and obtain better jobs. After inviting a few of his friends to his home, including attorney Joseph Mento, Daniel Dennis, Morvin Neves, George Lial, Joe Francis, King Silva, and William Rose, he presented his idea on the subject. They all agreed it was a good thing, so they formed what was to be known as the American Portuguese Club. (See Chapter 15.)

Mike contributed his building expertise in repair work at St. Elizabeth's Church, for which he never charged. For many years he was the cook for the IDES Holy Ghost Festival in Clarksburg, and also cooked for the festivals in Santa Cruz and Vallejo.

His wife, Mary, was also very active in social and church work. With Lillian Odbert and several other ladies, they held the first Bazaar for St. Elizabeths Church. The money raised was used to convert the church basement into a social hall. With Adeline Cobler, Minnie Fratis, and others, the American Portuguese Auxiliary was started. She also started a drill team for the SPRSI No.51, and managed the team until illness forced her to retire. Seven years later she died in 1948.

After her death, Mike retired and spent his time fishing, writing, and reading history. He suffered a heart attack on August 25, 1960, and died a week later, September 3, survived by his son Ralph and the latters three children; daughter Helen and her son, an investigator for the Public Defender's Office; his sisters, Maria Faria, Felismina Fraga of Sacramento, Rita Fur-tado, and Lionela Freitas (Felismina's twin) of the Azores. His brother Antonio of Oakland preceded him in death.

[Helen Furtado Brusato]

John SOUZA FOSTER John Souza de Alvieda Fustato) was born In Flores on January 1, 1844. He may have come to California on a whaling vessel, jumping ship in San Francisco. On December 27, 1875, at Andrus Island in the Delta, he married MARIA NAZARETH COREA, born March 20, 1844, in Madeira, who had entered the U.S. at Boston. She had two sisters, Joaquina Josephine) and Levita, and one brother, John Corea, who lived in North Sacramento.

Around 1892 John and Maria Foster settled on a small ranch at the intersection of Routier Road and Folsom Blvd., where grapes were probably their main crop, which they packed and sold. Their children attended Brighton School, later renamed Edward Kelly Grammar School, still standing on Bradshaw Road.

John Foster was remembered by some of his grandchildren as a handsome man, quite tall, with a moustache. In his later years he had a stroke and was confined to a homemade wheelchair built by his son John, consisting of a kitchen chair on wheels.

He died March 3, 1922, and Maria died January 4, 1932, both in Mills. Their children:

John FOSTER Jr. (1877-1951) married Susan Ellen Thurman in 1906, and had nine children: Marjorie, Thelma, and Donovan who died as infants; Delmar, Dorothy (Dona) Harris, Harvey, Donald, Cledith, and Cecil. Susan, who was born in Missouri, died in 1958.

John Foster Jr. was born near the Brickyard in the Pocket district and worked on the Yolo side of the river. He used to tell his children that he would undress on the Sacramento side, swim across the river, and then put on the work clothes that he had stashed there and proceed to his work, reversing the process at the end of the day. When he was 15 years old the family moved to Routier Station (Mills), where he worked delivering for the Studarus Grocery, which is where he probably met Susan, who was a maid for the Studarus family on Coloma Road.

John later tended bar at Routiers Station. At one time he owned his own well-drilling rig, and later worked for the Natomas Gold Dredger Co. on Dredger No. 2, which worked the area from Nimbus to Mills. He then worked for Western Pacific Railroad until he hurt his ankle and retired. Eventually John and Susan settled in Perkins. Susan took up oil painting after she had raised her family.

Their son, Delmar, at one time owned a bakery in Sacramento. Delmars son, Larry Foster, a college art instructor, is a world authority on whales, writing on that subject for various magazines, and doing the large foldout chart on whale species that appeared in the December 1976 National Geographic. He also played the zither and designed jewelry, one of his creations being the whale pin used in a fund-raising Help-the-Whale campaign.

Another son, Cecil, a noted local birdwatcher, was featured in both Sacramento newspapers in 1981 for his establishing at his home in south Sacramento one of the first backyard wildlife habitats certified by the American Wildlife Federation.

MANUEL FOSTER (1878-1939) worked in or around Nevada mines with the Mendonca brothers before settling at Live Oak, Calif., with his wife, Betty. Some relatives remembered his ride to Mills Station from Nevada on horseback.

Joseph FOSTER (1880-1963) married Mae McLaughlin, and had children Noel, and Mary Pope. Noel was a truck farmer in the Salinas area

MARY FOSTER (1882-1962) married MANUEL MENDONCA in 1901, and had a son, Henry, who changed the spelling of the name to Mandonca. (See MACHADO MENDONCA.)

LUVETA FOSTER (1883-1964) married Manuel's brother, Joseph MENDONCA, in 1907, and had children Barbara Francis, Aileen Ignacio, Melvin, Margaret Amarel, Dolores, Agnes Azevedo, Marie Lowery, and Joseph.

ANNA FOSTER (1885-1959) married MANUEL WILLIAM KING, a clamshell dredger captain. For 14 years after their marriage in 1907 they made their home on the various dredgers, constructing the levees for the reclamation of the many islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Their only son, Foster King, spent the first seven years of his life living in the captains quarters on the dredger Trojan. His parents then moved to a home in Sacramento at 22nd and F Streets so Foster could attend school. Manuel King then commuted to his work on the dredger, and Anna became active in the St. Francis Guild. Foster retired from PG8r.E and lived on a small island in the Sacramento River near Isleton. He married Lois Carrington.

ROSA FOSTER (1887-1965) married Joseph BETTENCOURT (1878-1967) in 1907. Joe

Bettencourt was raised in the Riverside area of Sacramento, and farmed where Mather Field is now. Upon marrying, Joe and Rose moved to Salinas for three years, then to Hollister and San

John Foster was remembered by some of his grandchildren as a handsome man, quite tall, with a moustache. In his later years he had a stroke and was confined to a homemade wheelchair built by his son John, consisting of a kitchen chair on wheels.

He died March 3, 1922, and Maria died January 4, 1932, both in Mills. Their children:

John FOSTER Jr. (1877-1951) married Susan Ellen Thurman in 1906, and had nine children: Marjorie, Thelma, and Donovan who died as infants; Delmar, Dorothy (Dona) Harris, Harvey, Donald, Cledith, and Cecil. Susan, who was born in Missouri, died in 1958.

John Foster Jr. was born near the Brickyard in the Pocket district and worked on the Yolo side of the river. He used to tell his children that he would undress on the Sacramento side, swim across the river, and then put on the work clothes that he had stashed there and proceed to his work, reversing the process at the end of the day. When he was 15 years old the family moved to Routier Station (Mills), where he worked delivering for the Studarus Grocery, which is where he probably met Susan, who was a maid for the Studarus family on Coloma Road.

John later tended bar at Routiers Station. At one time he owned his own well-drilling rig, and later worked for the Natomas Gold Dredger Co. on Dredger No. 2, which worked the area from Nimbus to Mills. He then worked for Western Pacific Railroad until he hurt his ankle and retired. Eventually John and Susan settled in Perkins. Susan took up oil painting after she had raised her family.

Their son, Delmar, at one time owned a bakery in Sacramento. Delmars son, Larry Foster, a college art instructor, is a world authority on whales, writing on that subject for various magazines, and doing the large foldout chart on whale species that appeared in the December 1976 National Geographic. He also played the zither and designed jewelry, one of his creations being the whale pin used in a fund-raising Help-the-Whale campaign.

Another son, Cecil, a noted local birdwatcher, was featured in both Sacramento newspapers in 1981 for his establishing at his home in south Sacramento one of the first backyard wildlife habitats certified by the American Wildlife Federation.

MANUEL FOSTER (1878-1939) worked in or around Nevada mines with the Mendonca brothers before settling at Live Oak, Calif., with his wife, Betty. Some relatives remembered his ride to Mills Station from Nevada on horseback.

Joseph FOSTER (1880-1963) married Mae McLaughlin, and had children Noel, and Mary Pope. Noel was a truck farmer in the Salinas area

MARY FOSTER (1882-1962) married MANUEL MENDONCA in 1901, and had a son, Henry, who changed the spelling of the name to Mandonca. (See MACHADO MENDONCA.)

LUVETA FOSTER (1883-1964) married Manuel's brother, Joseph MENDONCA, in 1907, and had children Barbara Francis, Aileen Ignacio, Melvin, Margaret Amarel, Dolores, Agnes Azevedo, Marie Lowery, and Joseph.

ANNA FOSTER (1885-1959) married MANUEL WILLIAM KING, a clamshell dredger captain. For 14 years after their marriage in 1907 they made their home on the various dredgers, constructing the levees for the reclamation of the many islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Their only son, Foster King, spent the first seven years of his life living in the captains quarters on the dredger Trojan. His parents then moved to a home in Sacramento at 22nd and F Streets so Foster could attend school. Manuel King then commuted to his work on the dredger, and Anna became active in the St. Francis Guild. Foster retired from PG8r.E and lived on a small island in the Sacramento River near Isleton. He married Lois Carrington.

ROSA FOSTER (1887-1965) married Joseph BETTENCOURT (1878-1967) in 1907. Joe

Bettencourt was raised in the Riverside area of Sacramento, and farmed where Mather Field is now. Upon marrying, Joe and Rose moved to Salinas for three years, then to Hollister and San Juan Bautista, where they bought a truck farm and raised their nine children: Wilbert, Lorraine Guerra, Ernest, Veronica Botelho, Clarence, Joseph, Evelyn Rianda, Violet Smith, and Johnnie. (A tenth child died in infancy in 1919.)

[Gloria Francis Stemler, Foster-Mendonca Family Photo History," 1981]

MANUEL FOSTER (Manuel Faustine Amaral) was born in 1876 in Ribeira Seca, Sao Jorge, the Azores, and arrived in California in July 1894 with his three brothers, Antone, Joseph, and George. They all came to Sacramento, and then worked in the mines at Cherokee, near Oroville. Eventually, all settled in Sacramento, except George, who went to Livermore, Calif. George was the only one to keep the name Amaral.

In Sacramento Manuel worked at the Buffalo Brewery on 21st Street where the Sacramento Bee building is now, and Antone had a blacksmith shop in Sutterville.

In May 1899 Manuel married MARY ADELINE VALINE of Clarksburg, and in October that year they purchased a home in the Highland Park section of Sacramento, where the Department of Motor Vehicles now stands. They then sold the three houses they owned there and in 1911 purchased a dairy farm in Marysville. In 1916 they moved back to Sacramento and bought the Gosling farm in the Pocket area, now the site of Hellenic Place, the Greek retirement home. Manuel farmed the acreage there for several years, raising mostly grain, tomatoes, and spinach, until he died in December 1948.

Their children: Marie, Clara, Ernest, William, Louie, Edward, and Matilda (Tillie). Marie and Clara were born in Marysville.

Son Louie carried on the family farm in the Pocket until it was no longer profitable to farm, moving to Sacramento when the property was sold.

Mary Valine Foster died on April 25, 1967, and son Louie in 1970. Both Manuel and Mary were active in the Portuguese lodges. Mary was secretary of SPRSI for 42 years, and president of the PTA.

[Tillie Foster De Gregorio]

ANTONE FRANCIS was born February 1822. He came from Pico to the U.S. around Cape Horn on a sailing vessel. He spent many years working around the mines in Folsom and in Placer County.

In 1863 he sent for his bride-to-be, Maria Jacinta, and her parents. Maria was born in 1838.

Antone and Maria had eight children, born at Doton's Bar, then part of Folsom Township. Surviving Antone were Kate Rodrigues, Marion Kilsby, Antone Francis, Isabel Rel-vas, and Mary Vieira.

Antone died February 13, 1910, Maria on October 18, 1873. (See RELVAS.)

[Adeline F. Serpa]

John FRANk4 a native of Faial, came to California in 1862 and settled at Rough and Ready, Nevada County, Calif., engaging in mining. He had a one-sixth interest in a Portuguese placer mining claim and did hydraulic mining until the law compelled him to stop that method, then mining in the placer mines until 1910. He then went into farming.

His wife, MARY FELECIA, was also from Faial, and had come to California with her parents in 1864 to settle at Rough and Ready, where she married John.

John Frank died in 1920 on the home ranch at the age of 83. Mary died in 1917 at age 76.

Their children: Mary A. Simas, mother of nine children; Anna M. Bruce, four children; Rosie A., four children; Joseph A.; Joaquin E.; Lucy C. Boitana; John A.; Eva C. King, four children; Manuel E.; and Marian Fletcher.

All of the children were educated at Rough and Ready. Joseph and his brother Manuel together farmed 400 acres on the site of the original Frank holdings. In 1918 Joseph was elected County Supervisor for District No. 4 of Nevada County, and was reelected in 1922.

[History of Placer and Nevada Counties, 1924]

ANTONE FRATES (Antone Frates Facha) was born in 1862 in Flores. He came to the U.S. as a young man and settled in the Pocket sometime around the late 1800s or early 1900s, working as a farm hand.

He married MARY FLORENCE LEWIS, daughter of Frank Lewis Sr., on April 19, 1913, in St. Joseph's Church in Clarksburg. Father Soares performed the ceremony. Mary Florence was born July 31, 1884, in the Pocket. They had twin sons, Jess and Joe.

After marrying, they went to live on her fathers 36 acre ranch, located south of and including the land where St. Mary's Church and Portuguese Hall are located. Later Antone acquired the ranch from his father-in-law. Antone lived and farmed there with the help of his sons until his death in 1942. The sons continued to farm the acreage until 1962 when the property was sold for subdivision.

Son Joe Frates was prominent in local Winter League baseball. Jess was in the army during World War II.

Mary Florence moved to town and lived there until her death on November 1, 1964.

[Jess Frates; Mary Dutra Rosa]

Joseph S. FRATES was born in Faial December 22, 1873, to Francisco and Mary (Santos) Frates. His father was a seafaring man who lived to be 90 years old; his mother died at age 75. Joseph attended the common schools in Portugal and taught school there. In 1893 he went to Newcastle and worked on a fruit ranch. At Newcastle on April 8, 1899, he married MARY MARSHALL, one of nine children of Manuel and Philomina (Armas) Marshall. Manuel Marshall, born in Faial August 28, 1858, son of Joseph and Mary Marshall, was educated in Faial and came to Sacramento in 1872. Philomina was born on Flores and came to California when she was age 14.

Joseph S. Frates first farmed on a part of the Armas place, and then he purchased some 25 acres about a mile west of Newcastle and developed a part of it to fruit, and there built a house. He and Mary had six children: Eva, Irene, and Josephine, who died very young; Walter, Marshall, and a second Eva, who attended both the Auburn and Lincoln High Schools and then graduated from St.Joseph's Academy, Sacramento.

In 1923 Joseph Frates rented out his ranch and moved to 18th and P Streets in Sacramento. (See MARSHALL.)

[History of Placer and Nevada Counties, 1924]

MANUEL A. FRATIS was born in 1876 in Cohasset, Mass., the son of Manuel and Rose Frates. His father came to Monterey with the first fishing crew and remained here for a short time before returning to the Azores where he married, returned again to Massachusetts, and then retired to the Azores where he died.

Manuel was educated in the public schools of Massachusetts and the Azores. He Their children: Mary A. Simas, mother of nine children; Anna M. Bruce, four children; Rosie A., four children; Joseph A.; Joaquin E.; Lucy C. Boitana; John A.; Eva C. King, four children; Manuel E.; and Marian Fletcher.

All of the children were educated at Rough and Ready. Joseph and his brother Manuel together farmed 400 acres on the site of the original Frank holdings. In 1918 Joseph was elected County Supervisor for District No. 4 of Nevada County, and was reelected in 1922.

[History of Placer and Nevada Counties, 1924]

ANTONE FRATES (Antone Frates Facha) was born in 1862 in Flores. He came to the U.S. as a young man and settled in the Pocket sometime around the late 1800s or early 1900s, working as a farm hand.

He married MARY FLORENCE LEWIS, daughter of Frank Lewis Sr., on April 19, 1913, in St. Joseph's Church in Clarksburg. Father Soares performed the ceremony. Mary Florence was born July 31, 1884, in the Pocket. They had twin sons, Jess and Joe.

After marrying, they went to live on her fathers 36 acre ranch, located south of and including the land where St. Mary's Church and Portuguese Hall are located. Later Antone acquired the ranch from his father-in-law. Antone lived and farmed there with the help of his sons until his death in 1942. The sons continued to farm the acreage until 1962 when the property was sold for subdivision.

Son Joe Frates was prominent in local Winter League baseball. Jess was in the army during World War II.

Mary Florence moved to town and lived there until her death on November 1, 1964.

[Jess Frates; Mary Dutra Rosa]

Joseph S. FRATES was born in Faial December 22, 1873, to Francisco and Mary (Santos) Frates. His father was a seafaring man who lived to be 90 years old; his mother died at age 75. Joseph attended the common schools in Portugal and taught school there. In 1893 he went to Newcastle and worked on a fruit ranch. At Newcastle on April 8, 1899, he married MARY MARSHALL, one of nine children of Manuel and Philomina (Armas) Marshall. Manuel Marshall, born in Faial August 28, 1858, son of Joseph and Mary Marshall, was educated in Faial and came to Sacramento in 1872. Philomina was born on Flores and came to California when she was age 14.

Joseph S. Frates first farmed on a part of the Armas place, and then he purchased some 25 acres about a mile west of Newcastle and developed a part of it to fruit, and there built a house. He and Mary had six children: Eva, Irene, and Josephine, who died very young; Walter, Marshall, and a second Eva, who attended both the Auburn and Lincoln High Schools and then graduated from St.Joseph's Academy, Sacramento.

In 1923 Joseph Frates rented out his ranch and moved to 18th and P Streets in Sacramento. (See MARSHALL.)

[History of Placer and Nevada Counties, 1924]

MANUEL A. FRATIS was born in 1876 in Cohasset, Mass., the son of Manuel and Rose Frates. His father came to Monterey with the first fishing crew and remained here for a short time before returning to the Azores where he married, returned again to Massachusetts, and then retired to the Azores where he died.

Manuel was educated in the public schools of Massachusetts and the Azores. He worked as a carpenter in the Azores, and in 1900 came to California and then, in 1903, to Sacramento where he was employed for seven years as a journeyman with Charles Vanina, a building contractor. He then went into business for himself and built some of the public schools and finest residences in Sacramento, Newcastle, and Auburn. He was in the building trade for 40 years, and retired in 1947.

He married MINNIE AGNES MARSHALL, a native of Newcastle. They had three children: Arthur, Viola Brown, and Marvin. (See MARSHALL.)

Manuel died January 25, 1962.

[History of Sacramento County, 1923]

ROSE GOMES FRATES was born in Folsom in 1884, the daughter of M. Gomes, who was chief of the Folsom Fire Dept. for eight years before his death. Her grandfather, who in this country went by the name of Frank Frank, was born in Portugal and came with his parents to California when he was nine years old. At one time he had been a sea captain. Later he lived in the mining camps in and around Folsom, and then went to work for Simon Cohn in 1856 when he opened his S.Cohn & Co. store on Sutter Street in Folsom.

Rose, her brother, and also her mother all attended early-day Granite School on Mormon Street, from which Rose graduated in 1900. They walked seven or eight blocks through mud and across water ditches to get to school. Her mother once owned 25 acres in Berkeley, now on the site of the University of California.

Rose married Joseph FRATES in 1907. They had four sons: Raymond, Irving, Edward, and Fred; and daughter Annabelle Gemignia, who had two daughters, Lillian Gemignia and Julie Cornacchioli. Rose died November 10, 1978, at age 94.

[Adeline F. Serpa; Folsom Telegraph, 1966 and November 1978]

ALBINO AUGUSTO FREITAS was born November 19, 1895, at Arco Sao Jorge, Madeira, the son of Casimiro Augusto de Freitas (1853-1928) and Jesuina de Jesus (1865-1958). He left Madeira when he was 17 because his family didnt want him to enter military service. He went to Lisbon, and traveled through Spain, France, and ended up at Bremen, Germany.

There he paid a sea captain on a tramp steamer to take him to the United States, eventually ending up at New Bedford, Mass. He had no family or friends to meet him. He stayed in a Portuguese boarding house and found work as a weaver in the cotton mills in New Bedford.

In 1916 in the boarding house he met MARIA Jardim PINTO (1900-1944), also born in Arco Sao Jorge, Madeira, daughter of Antonio Pinto (1871-1908) and Johanna Jardim (1880-1933), who ran the boarding house. They were married in New Bedford. She also worked in the mills as a spinner.

Maria's mother, Johanna Jardim Pinto, left Madeira for the U.S. when her husband Antonio died, and settled in New Bedford where she established a boarding house. She and Antonio Pinto had six children: Maria, Eduard, Angelo, Angelina, Antonio, and Laura. Johanna married again after Antonio's death, to Antonio Ramos, in the early 1920s, and this new family came to Bryte where they established a small general store. Ramos had four sons by a previous marriage: Antonio, David, Noe, and Jordan.

Albino and Maria came to Sacramento in 1926, where Albino eventually went to work at the Southern Pacific shops as a molder in the brass foundry. They settled in Bryte (now part of West Sacramento) where there were other Portuguese from Madeira: Carvalho, Ramos, Silva, Sequeira, Frates, Cardoza, Bettencourt, Avila, Andrade, Jardim, Pinto, Dutra, Simas, Lawrence, Neves, Sousa, Baeta, and Rodrigues families.

Albino was very active in the 1930s in the Portuguese acting group which held plays at St. Elizabeth's Church, at the Tuesday Club House, and Portuguese halls. Usually he was the leading man in the plays. He was also one of the organizers of the San Pedro Festival held in Bryte.

Albino and Maria Freitas had nine children: Dorothy, Cecilia, Inez, Celestino, Valentino, Albino, Daniel, Mary, and Dionizio (Dennis).

[Celestino Freitas]

Joseph FREITAS pose "Camacho" Ferreira) was born in Santo Amaro, Pico, on May 10, 1880, one of four children of Manuel "Camacho" Ferreira and the former Mariana Aurora Silveira. In 1901, as he was approaching draft age of 21, Jose received orders to register in the army for possible service in Africa. His family quickly sold a few possession to scrape together enough money to send Jose to the United States instead, making arrangements with friends to sneak him out from Pico in the middle of the night for the island of Sao Jorge, and from there he embarked for America.

He departed from Ellis Island by train with a note in hand to join a cousin somewhere out in the unknown great plains. After arriving there he encountered only non-Portuguese strangers.

He could not communicate with anyone, but soon realized through sign language sleeping gestures and movements like digging a hole that his cousin had died. Frightened, hungry, broke, and with only the clothes on his back, he sat down and cried, and wished he were back in the Azores. He got a helping hand from someone who understood the situation, took him in, and gave him work.

The cross-country nights were sometimes frightening, sleeping on haystacks in the lonely plains, a remote contrast to the small rocky and green island he left. He awakened one night from a dream to the sound of screeching and pounding. Terrified, he imagined that his cousin was crying for help from the great beyond. But he soon realized it was a wild-horse stampede.

Joseph worked and kept migrating west, reaching Boise, Idaho, where many Portuguese stopped. There he worked herding cattle and sheep, and in the hayfields. Again he hopped a train going farther west, eventually to Winnemucca, Nevada.

There, two years later, he was joined by his brother Manuel, and they worked together for a railroad company doing track-tie work. Manuel's experience had been similar to that of Joseph, having just enough money for his train fare after leaving Ellis Island and a little left over to buy a loaf of bread and a hunk of cheese. That was all he had to eat during his entire train trip.

Money was scarce, so the two would hop trains and ration their food. At one point to save money Joseph ate beans three times a day for three months. Later he became a bean grower but his wife could never serve him beans.

Joseph and Manuel moved on to the Sierras, stopping at Donner Summit where they worked helping to repair snowsheds. Somewhere along the way Joseph worked in a lumber mill where a payroll master asked him his name. The paymaster mistook his pronunciation of Ferreira to be Freitas, and from then on he was Freitas. Manuel then changed his name to Freitas also.

The two brothers moved to Blue Canyon, then to Gold Run, and finally to Sacramento.

There MANUEL CAMACHO FREITAS met a pretty young lady from Knights Landing named MARY Do MAESTRO AVILA. They got married, and the two brothers parted, Joseph moving downriver to Clarksburg. Manuel and Mary had four children: Ernestine Freitas Walton, Julius Freitas, Clement Freitas, and Bernardette Freitas Young Keller. Manuel later married again, to MARY PACHECO of Massacusetts and they had one son, Joseph Freitas.

Joseph moved in with his cousin, Flora Neves Terra and her husband Frank. Frank Terra had a butcher shop in Manuel Soto's grocery store in Clarksburg, and Joseph became his butcher, delivering meat by horse-driven wagon along the levee from Clarksburg to Freeport.

His first investment, in 1907, was to buy from Fanushca Silva a 25-acre ranch in the Clarksburg area a half-mile south of the Freeport Ferry landing, between the John Neves and Manica ranches. Fanushca was the father of Carol and Mamie Silva.

While delivering meat he met ANNA SOTO SMITH, the young widow of John Smith of Grand Island. Ann and John Smith had married on October 22, 1900, but John died after only three years, from cancer, at the age of 34. Joseph and Anna Freitas married on July 20, 1909, in St. Joseph's Church in Clarksburg. Anna, born April 21, 1880, was the daughter of John and Frances Soto of Clarksburg. (See SOTO.)

Anna moved to the small house that Joseph was occupying on the ranch. In 1915 they hired carpenter Joe Baliel to build them a new home there. The house still stands today, occupied by Joe and Ceil Borges.

Joseph wanted to farm more productively, so he went down to Holland Land in Clarksburg, taking in a Japanese family to care for the home ranch and to stay with his family. Then, hearing about the new Natomas District 1000, by 1919 he bought a 50-acre ranch on Jefferson Road next to the Frank Lawrence Azevedo property, and sold his old place with the new home to Joe Borges and Minnie Patrice Borges.

He still had some money left after paying cash for his first ranch so he used it to buy half of a smaller 25-acre ranch closer to the Garden Highway levee, next to the Elmer Christophel River View orchard, and then bought a house that was across the road and moved it to the larger ranch, which already had a large barn and tankhouse, corral and trees.

The Freitases were doing fine farming their two ranches, their children were attending the Jefferson Grammar School about three-quarters of a mile from home, and then came two very heavy early raining winters at the outset of the Depression, destroying all crops.

Many farmers in those Depression days were unable to pay their bills and land assessments, forcing many foreclosures. Joseph Freitas hired Joseph Mento to handle all legal problems, and, trusting the Portuguese attorney, accepted from Mento a part-mortgage against Josephs second ranch. According to Joseph's daughter Grace Freitas Rose, Mento called Joseph into his office and told him that he was foreclosing his two ranches for nonpayment of the mortgage, which was upon the small ranch only, charging that Joseph had defaulted through neglect and poor investments. Manuel Soto, the brother of Joseph's wife Anna, also a client of Mento, was in the office at the time. Believing Mento, Manuel Soto charged Joseph Freitas with making his sister destitute.

Joseph was shocked. With his head pounding, almost fainting, he groped his way out of the office, and collapsed when he got home. His wife thought he was having a heart attack. He spoke of suicide, and Anna and her son hid all of his weapons.

Shortly after the foreclosure, Anna Freitas was served with an eviction notice while standing in her backyard. Her daughter Grace, then only 13 years old, sat down and wrote to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, explaining what was being done to her parents. The President replied, apologizing that he could only suggest getting legal advice. They had already gotten that from attorney Mento, of course.

The Freitas family sadly departed Natomas for a temporary home with Joseph's brother Manuel in Clarksburg. Joseph did farm work for a dollar a day, their son Raymond quit school to go into trucking, and daughter Grace registered to attend Clarksburg High School.

Conditions were difficult during that Depression period. After a while the banks had acquired so much foreclosure property that they didn't know what to do with it, and began to offer to resell properties back to the former owners, but Joseph Freitas never had that opportunity. Joseph and his son tried to farm together, but they couldn't make it.

The family moved back to Natomas, settling on one of John Silvas ranches, and then later Anna and Joseph moved back to Clarksburg, buying the William Contente home, and Joseph went to work for the Western Pacific Railroad. Joseph's heart failed on his way to work in Freeport, and on October 1, 1945, at age 65, he died.

Meanwhile, in 1935 their son Raymond (Lloyd Raymond Freitas) had married Rose Belle Augustina, of Bryte. Raymond died March 24, 1979 at age 65. Daughter Grace married Ernest A. Rose in Sacramento on November 17, 1940, and Anna moved in with them. Anna died on May 30, 1962, at age 82. Ernie Rose, Grace's husband, died January 24, 1988.

In addition to his brother Manuel, Joseph Freitas had two sisters, Mary Aurora, and Adelaide. Adelaide Camacho Ferreira remained in Pico and never married. MARY AURORA CAMACHO FERREIRA married EMANUEL LEAL (called Manuel Vantania Lee). They had a son, Norman Lee, who died of spinal meningitis at age 12, and daughters Gloria Lee Rogers and Norma Lundstrom.

[Grace Freitas Rose]

From the "Portuguese Pionners of the Sacramento Area" by Lionel Holmes and Joseph D'alessandro -Published by: the Portuguese Historical Society - P.O. Box 161990, Sacramento - California 95616.

 

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