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    Pioneer Portuguese Families of the Sacramento Area









Surnames A to B

 Early in the formative months of the Portuguese Historical and Cultural Society there began an effort to collect histories of some of the Portuguese families in the greater Sacramento area, and several histories were gathered some submitted in writing by individuals, some recorded on tape by interviewers from PHCS. In the spring of 1989 it was announced in the quarterly newsletter of PHCS, 0 Progresso, that the long-planned history of Sacramentos Portuguese and their descendants was about to proceed, and that more family histories were desired for inclusion in this book, Portuguese Pioneers. An announcement about the project in Sacramento newspapers elicited a few more responses.

The following are the family histories received for inclusion, including some information exerpted from previously published histories. For many of these biographical sketches we are especially indebted to several people who interviewed early-day Portuguese and their descendants for the information offered here: to Dolores Silva Greenslate for the Pocket, Riverside, and downtown Sacramento; to Aileen Alves Gage, who interviewed many of the Placer County Portuguese descendants; to Grace Freitas Rose, for her extensive input from the Clarksburg and Freeport areas; to Mary Ferreira Rosa for the Natomas area; and to Dr. Gregg Campbell, professor of History at California State University, Sacramento, whose oral-history project for PHCS in 1983 preserved on tape for this book remembrances of several older Portuguese, some now deceased.

We wish there were more than these few biographical sketches. Considerable efforts were made to obtain more. But maybe publication of these will stimulate submission of others and give us an excuse to someday publish a separate Family Histories supplement to this book.

In some cases, if there is enough information about the wife of the male entry, she is covered in a separate entry under her own name or that of her parents. Otherwise, where information is sparse, she is included with the entry of her husband. The historical entries that is, those individuals and their spouses who go back to the turn of the century and are of Portuguese descent are in most cases in bold-face type for ease in cross-checking against names included in other entries. Who knows an unknown cousin or two may turn up in this collection of names, as suggested by the title of this Part Two section, "We're All Cousins." Indeed, many of the people named in these pages are direct or shirttail cousins, or at least connected by marriage to others who are related.

Some anecdotes about family members that were included in the material submitted have been pulled from these individual family histories and inserted where appropriate in the general text, a not-so-subtle way to cause readers to peruse more than just their own family histories in this Part Two.

The alphabetical order of these biographical sketches is under the name the individual was commonly known by in this country, not by the name he or she was born with in Portugal. Where known, that real name is also given. The alphabetical order follows the root name, not the prefix of "De" or "Da"; Da Roza, for example, is listed under the R" names. Further, in some of the material submitted to PHCS back in 1983 when the biographical project was started, an individual or family or activity would be identified with "Freeport, on the Yolo side." That area today is Clarksburg; in fact, it never was officially Freeport. So to avoid confusion with today's Freeport, which is a suburb of Sacramento, we've arbitrarily substituted "Clarksburg" for Freeport, Yolo side."

The primary source of the biographical information, where known, is identified in brackets after each item. In some cases the person named submitted the information back in 1983, and is no longer living.

Here, from A through W, are the family histories, some lengthy and some unfortunately too brief:

FRANCISCO SILVEIRA ALVERNAZ left Sao Roque, Pico, for the United States in 1900, leaving behind in the Azores his wife, MARIA FELICIA da GLORIA, and their two children, Manuel and Maria.

He worked on farms in the Clarksburg area, and then in 1902 sent for his son Manuel to join him. In 1904 he returned to the Azores to visit his wife and daughter, leaving his son with his sister, Rosa Damiao, in Clarksburg. Enroute to Pico, he got stranded in Sao Miguel, and while there his wife died in Pico. Francisco arrived there two days after her death.

MARIA ALVERNAZ, Franciscos daughter, meanwhile had married MANUEL PAULINO when she was 15 and he was 22. While Francisco was in Pico, he arranged for his son-in-law, Manuel Paulino, to go to the U.S. Manuel traveled to the U.S. in 1904 alone under an assumed name to avoid being drafted into the Portuguese military. Shortly after Manuel's arrival, Francisco and his daughter, Maria Alvernaz Paulino, followed that same year.

In 1908 Francisco again returned to Sao Rogue, Pico, where he remarried and settled, and never returned again to the U.S.

MANUEL ALVERNAZ, Francisco's son, married AMELIA Jacinto, daughter of Marion Jacinto and the former Carrie Silva. That marriage ended in divorce, and Manuel later moved to the Los Angeles area, and married Sophie Maloof, a Lebanese, and had a daughter, Marie Alvernaz, who married Ray Wetzel, and, now widowed, lives in Brea, Los Angeles County.

Manuel and Maria Paulino lived in Sacramento, where Manuel worked as a bartender in several establishments around 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and I and L Streets, and later became the proprietor of the White Front Bar, well known to all of the Portuguese in the area. Manuel and Maria had a daughter in 1925, but Maria died at childbirth. The daughter is Eleanor Rainboth, who for many years was secretary to Msgr. Val Fagundes, longtime pastor of St. Elizabeth's Church.

Manuel remained single for several years while his daughter Eleanor was being raised by her godparent aunt and uncle, Domingos and Maria Alvernaz, in Clarksburg. When Domingos and Maria went in to Sacramento to shop they sometimes dropped Eleanor off with her father, Manuel Paulino, at the White Front, where she waited in the office until they completed their purchases.

Later, Manuel married Josie Marshall Perry, widow of Joe Perry.

Francisco Silveira Alvernaz was one of eight children of Manuel Silveira Alvernaz and the former Ignacia Leal, sister of Antonio Leal and Leonor Jacinto Leal (See SILVEIRA). Francisco's brothers and sisters:

MANUEL SILVEIRA ALVERNAZ, who never married; BERNARDA ALVERNAZ, who married a Carrol, and had two daughters and a son, the daughters being Maria Silvina and Amelia Gracia; the aforementioned DOMINGOS SILVEIRA ALVERNAZ, who had married MARIA AVILA, and who together raised Eleanor Rainboth, having no children of their own; ANNA ALVERNAZ, who married MANUEL VIEIRA, and whose two children were Manuel Avila Vieira and Anna Vieira Lourenco; MARIA IGNACIA ALVERNAZ, who married MANUEL SIMAS GARCIA, and whose daughter Mary first married Manuel Machado and then Vicente Paulino (Paul Vincent), brother of Manuel Paulino; ROSA ALVERNAZ, who married ANTONE DAMIAO (Antonio Damiao), and raised her stepchildren by Damiaos previous marriage to Annie Silva; and ANTONIO ALVERNAZ, who settled in the Yuba City area, and had four daughters. Two daughters, Rose and Emma, settled in the Patterson, Calif., area where they married brothers John and Frank Soares.

[Manuel Avila Vieira; Eleanor Rainboth]

MANUEL SILVEIRA ALVERNAZ (not the above) was born in Sao Roque, Pico, on March 12, 1877, and came to Sacramento around 1900, living with the Manual Rosa family in their home on the levee just south of the Da Rosa grocery store. Once established, he sent for MARIA do ROZARIO SEAMAS, the daughter of close friends and neighbors of Manuel's family in Pico. Born February 8, 1912, in Sao Roque, she came to Sacramento and lived with the Manuel Rosa family, taking care of Manuel Jr., and then became a seamstress for an American family in Sacramento, living with them until she married Manuel.

The newlywed Alvernaz couple first lived in a small house next to the levee, and there all children were born: Manuel Jr., Evelyn, Alfred, Frank, and Alice. Later, about 1927, Manuel built his beautiful two-story brick home on the acreage fronting Riverside Road for $8,000 still standing, surrounded by new homes and duplexes. The builders were Frank and Antone Terra.

Manuel Alvernaz died March 20, 1965, age 98. Maria died July 26, 1973, age 90. Daughter Evelyn was the first child baptized at St. Elizabeth's Church. She married her neighbor, Melvin Enos, son of Frank Enos who had the gas station in Riverside. Frank Alvernaz, who retired from farming in the Natomas area, was proprietor of the Back Door restaurant in Old Sacramento; Alfred Alvernaz is proprietor of the Hereford House on Riverside Boulevard; Manuel Jr. died January 19, 1979, age 65. He also had been in the bar-restaurant business as proprietor of The Distillery at 16th and L Streets.

[Alice Alvernaz Holtzman; Manuel Rosa Jr.]

FRANK ALVES (Francisco Jose Alves) was born in Pedro Miguel, Faial, on January 10, 1893, one of 11 children of Joao Jose Alves and Ana da Luz da Gloria. His paternal grandparents were Jose Francisco Alves and Teresa Jacinta. His grandfathers were brothers, which made his parents first cousins. Francisco's ten brothers and sisters were: Jose, born March 10, 1890; Joao, born July 11, 1891; Manuel, born January 27, 1894; Maria do Ceu, born May 5, 1895; Ana da Gloria, born June 26, 1896; Rosa, born August 10, 1897; Maria da Gloria, born November 3, 1899; Joaquim, born July 26, 1901; Luis, born May 29, 1904; and Jose, born October 9, 1908.

Frank sailed to the United States on the ship Santa Anna, reaching the port of New York on August 17, 1910. He went to San Jose and stayed with his godparents, Francisco Jose Alves and Mariana Tomasia da Gloria for a while.

His only education in this country was six hours of night classes. He worked as a laborer digging ditches, building roads anything he could find for a dollar a day. Jobs were scarce in those days. He worked on the highway from Gilroy to Salinas, with pick and shovel, dynamite, and eight mules hitched to a plow and scraper, for $2.50 a day. He also helped to build the Santa Cruz golf course.

He knocked around from place to place, working his way up to the Sacramento Valley as a farm worker, baling hay, cutting corn for silage, and milking cows. For about seven years he lived in Sacramento, at 1910 4th Street in 1916 and later at No. 507 in the alley between M and N Streets. While there he married Minnie Rosalene Frazer and had a son, Albert, who died at age six, and a daughter, Gloria, who died at two months.

Moving then to Placer County, he worked at Gladding, McBean in Lincoln, moving clay products from the presses to ovens and then to the yard for loading. He also worked around Newcastle and Ophir as a tenant fruit rancher. Between harvesting and pruning, he worked for the Portland Cement Co. mountain quarry in the American River Canyon out of Auburn. With an eight-pound hammer, he split rock no bigger than six inches in diameter.

On December 29, 1923, at St. Joseph's Catholic Church in Auburn, he married MARIANA ROGERS (Mariana Rodrigues Luis) of Criacao Velha, Pico, the daughter of Tomaz Rodrigues Luis and Catarina Jacinta. Her paternal grandparents were Manuel Rodrigues Luis and Maria Luisa, and her maternal grandparents were Francisco Rodrigues Tavares and Maria Jacinto. Frank and Mariana had three children, Aileen, John, and Basil.

He worked in the fruit industry until 1941, and then while living on the Ames ranch across the road from the Freitas ranch near Newcastle, they decided to try dairying, starting by raising one herd at a time. He bought a small farm in 1942 near Lincoln, continually increasing his herd, sold the cream, and produced a variety of dairy products. They later went into business with another Portuguese-American, Frank Thomas, on his ranch near Mt. Pleasant, and expanded the business into a grade-A dairy.

In March 1958 Frank Alves retired and moved to Willows until 1980, and then moved back to Auburn. He became a naturalized citizen of the U.S. on December 13, 1956, in Willows.

Frank died at age 90 on July 20, 1983, in Auburn. His wife, Mariana, died April 14, 1981. Both are buried in the new Auburn Cemetery.

[Aileen Alves Gage]

ANTONE MACHADO AMAREL was born in Ribeira Seca, Sao Jorge, on September 8, 1844, and after a month at sea immigrated to America around 1862 at age 18. He worked for Portuguese farmers in the Grant area until, around 1870, he purchased a 10-acre ranch around the Del Paso Park area. Then, at age 26, Antone married LOUISE ANDRADE on September 10, 1870. She was the same age, having been born the same day and year as Antone in Flamengos, Faial, and had come to America when she was 22.

Louise had first gone to the Bay Area to live with a cousin, and then to Sacramento to work as a domestic in the home of Antone Silva at 1217 E Street, helping to care for some of the 13 Silva children, until she married Antone.

They lived on their acreage in the Grant, where sons Tony and Joe were born, until about 1905 when they purchased the 103-acre ranch on 24th Street Road and Florin Road, on both sides of 24th. The home was located on the west side. Daughters Mary, Anna, and Louise (Lil), were born at 24th Street.

The acreage contained a small dairy, and hay and grain were also raised. Antone ranched with his sons until they married. Shortly before Antone died in January, 1949, Frank Tash (See TASH), who married Mary Amarel, rented the acreage and kept cattle there until the ranch was sold about 1950 for a home subdivision. Previously, about 20 acres of the Amarel ranch had been condemned by the City to purchase and build part of the Bing Maloney Golf Course. Louise Andrade Amarel died February, 1954.

The children all went to school at the old Pacific School located at what is now Franklin Boulevard and 47th Avenue, where the Pacific Fire Department is now located. The architecture of the school resembled closely the Freeport School and the Sutter District School, which suggests that they may have been built about the same time and by the same builder.

The Amarel children and the neighboring Japanese children would take the horse and spring wagon to school, the older boys taking turns driving, often taking delight in driving over chuck holes to excite the other children. In the winter during the rains the wagon would mire down halfway through the wheels almost to the axle. Hay would have to be stacked for the horse to be fed at noon.

When it was possible to go, the family attended Immaculate Conception Church in Oak Park.

[Mary Amarel Tash]

FRANK G. AMARO was born in Madeira on January 12, 1878, the second of four children of Manuel and Refina (Franca) Amaro. Frank attended school in Madeira, and then in 1892 went to Brazil where he worked on ranches for about seven years before going to New York. He stayed there a week, and then traveled to San Francisco, and then shortly thereafter to the Sacramento area.

His father, a farmer, died at age 65; his mother at age 38.

On December 15, 1906 in Hayward he married VIRGINIA Quintel, the daughter of Manuel and Julia Quintel, both natives of Madeira who had come to California in 1886. They had three children: George, Matilda, and August Amaro. Frank was a member of the IDES of Isleton, having served as vice president of the lodge.

Upon coming to the area, Amaro leased 40 acres near Isleton, and raised fruit and vegetables there until 1915, when he moved to the Courtland area where he established his home on 40 acres, growing pears and asparagus. Around 1923 he built a new home on the levee of the Sacramento River, and erected a packing shed for shipping fruit on the river boats.

[History of Sacramento County, 1923]

ANTONIO Jose ANDRADE was born in 1886 on the island of Brava, Cape Verde, to Jose and Carlotta (Costa) Andrade, and left the Cape Verde Islands at age 13 for New Bedford where he washed dishes for a couple of years before shipping out. Eventually he became a sea-going chef.

The typical practice among Cape Verdean men was to leave the islands for the United States the first chance they got, then return there and get married, their wives remaining in Cape Verde while the men returned to the U.S. In some cases in the early days the wives would stay in the islands as long as 20 years, the men making periodic trips back and forth.

So it was with Antonio Andrade. In 1914 he had married MARIA Dos REIS and then continued at sea, leaving Maria in Cape Verde pregnant with her first child. At some point Antonio sailed from New Bedford for California, where he worked as a cook on passenger ships plying between San Francisco and Hawaii until he joined the Army in 1918. He served at Fort Lewis, Washington, until discharged in 1919.

He went to the Bay Area and worked for the California Transportation Co. river boats between San Francisco and Sacramento, including the Pride of the River and the Capital City. Most of his fellow crewmen in the galley were Cape Verdeans, and the deck hands were mostly either Cape Verdeans or Azoreans.

He had established residence in Alameda, and there he was finally joined by his wife and oldest child, Joseph, who sailed from Cape Verde in May of 1921, when the latter was five or six years old. They had sailed on the windjammer Uolante to New Bedford, and then traveled by train to Oakland, a combined journey of 28 to 30 days. Young Joe recalled that Sunday was a special day when the captain served canned fruit. The Volantes skipper at one point came across a drunken sailor and realized there was moonshine liquor aboard, which he promptly had thrown overboard. The liquor, not the sailor.

After about six months in Alameda, where a second son, John, was born in 1922, the family moved to Sacramento, where the senior Andrade went to work for the Southern Pacific Company in the boiler shop. Several other Cape Verdeans and Azoreans were employed.

They lived in Broderick for three months and then bought a home on 18th Street between X and Broadway, for $3,500, paying down $300. It was a working-class neighborhood of Portuguese and Italians, mostly. There was a levee on Broadway (Y Street then), with Japanese truck gardens on the other side of the levee. There was a horse barn there where the Italians who had the garbage contract kept their horses. After the barn burned down, Sacramento's first supermarket, Le Marche, was built on the site, later occupied by Sams Ranch Wagon, and today the Mandarin Quisine restaurant.

Maria dos Reis Andrade also went to work for the Southern Pacific, as a coach cleaner, and also at the canneries.

Son Joe Andrade, who was born on Brava April 29, 1915, attended the Cathedral Parish School at 8th and S., William Land School on V Street between 11th and 12th Streets, and Sacramento High School. While their mother worked at the cannery, Joe and his brother John stayed at Crace Day Home.

After working summers at Del Monte Cannery during his high school years, Joe followed his father to Southern Pacific where, at age 19 in 1934 he was a carman apprentice. In 1939 he worked for S.P. for nine months in Los Angeles, and then returned to Sacramento, and in subsequent years worked in the air brake valve unit and as union representative, retiring after 43-1/2 years with S.P. in 1978. Joe was one of the founders of the California Cape Verdeans, organized in 1975 following the revolution in Portugal.

In 1940 he married Mary da Silva, a Cape Verdean., and fathered sons Anthony and Gary. Subsequently divorced, Joe and his mother returned to Brava to visit relatives, and there he met Anna da Silva, marrying in 1949. Joe and Anna have three children, John Steven, Joe, and Sandra Lee. Anna is the daughter of Manuel da Silva and the former Eugenia Lomba, both of Brava.

Antonio Jose Andrade died in 1958, and Maria dos Reis Andrade on June 23, 1988.

[Joe Andrade]

Joseph S. ANZORE (the family name was originally Osorio) was born January 1, 1898, in Mirando do Douro, in continental Portugal, to Antonio Luiz and Rosa Catarina, who were married about 1888.

In March or April 1911, the family parents and children Joseph, Isabel and Francisco left Ligares, Portugal, with other families from Ligares and Urros, to work the sugarcane fields in Hawaii. An older son Angelo and his wife and three children stayed in Portugal, but at a later date moved to Montevideo, Uruguay.

It took 60-plus days to make the trip around Cape Horn to Hawaii. The ocean was rough, and they encountered hardships. Rosa Catarina was seasick the entire trip, and their trunks were lost possibly sent to Africa. They were offered other trunks left behind by others, but they refused. Friends and other passengers were kind and offered them clothing.

In Hawaii, they were sent to a sugarcane camp, designated Camp 5. Joseph, being big for his age 13, drove a team of horses to pick up the harvested cane while his father, mother, and sister cut the cane.

After only nine months or so, Antonio Luiz suffered from stomach problems, so they left Hawaii for mainland United States. They went to Concord, California, where Rosa Catarina ran a boarding house, and Joseph and his father went to work building the railroad at Concord while Francisco and Isabel attended school.

After a period in Concord, restless Antonio Luiz took the family to Sacramento, where they lived at 3rd and S Streets, renting from Mrs. John Enos.

In 1915 the family went back to Ligares, Portugal, with Joseph staying behind. Antonio, being in poor health, had decided he wanted to die at home, which he did around 1925. Rosa Catarina died around 1932.

Joseph went to live for a while with his good friend Frank Morais, also from Ligares, who was a farming partner with Manuel Francisco Silva in the Clarksburg area. He also worked for Frank Machado Sr. in Natomas from 1915 until about 1917. He then went to work for the Southern Pacific Railroad as a boilermaker for about 53 years, and retired in 1968.

Joseph married GELCEMINE NORDESTE in 1915 at St. Elizabeth's Church. Their children were Louis F. and Edward J. Anzore. Joseph and Gelcemine divorced in 1922, and she died in 1956. Joseph then married ISABELLE GEORGE about 1926, and had a child, Beverly Jean. Joseph died February 2, 1981.

Joseph was the founder of the second organized Camellia City Band in the early 1920s, playing with the band clarinet and Souzaphone until around 1973. His band uniform was donated to the Sacramento History Center as part of its Portuguese collection.

Son Edward J. Anzore, born in 1918, saw wartime service as an Air Force navigator, flying 45 missions over Europe, for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross and six Air Medals. He then went on to get a law degree from the University of San Francisco in 1948, and the next year hung out his shingle in the practice of civil, criminal and administrative law at the Ochsner Building in Sacramento. He died May 9, 1988, at age 70, leaving his wife, the former Esther L. Meunier. They had married in 1941. He was one of the founders of the Valley High Country Club in 1959, past-president of the Sacramento chapter of Cabrillo Civic Club, and a member of other organizations and lodges in the Sacramento area.

[Edward J. Anzore]

Joseph P. ARMES pose Armas) was born in Santa Cruz, Flores, in 1847, and immigrated to the Newcastle area of Placer County, Calif., in 1863. On December 19, 1880 in Auburn he married MARY A. FRATES (Freitas), who was born in Faial on May 9, 1859, the daughter of Francisco Jose Silveira de Freitas and Maria Luisa Coracao de Jesus. Her mother was the daughter of Jose Antonio and Marianna Luisa Santos. Jose Santos had been a tax collector in 1810. Mary Frates had come to the U.S. to visit an aunt, and stayed to marry Joseph Armes

Joseph, a fruit farmer in the Newcastle area for nearly 40 years, had been the organizer for the Republican Party for Placer County. He died on February 25, 1909, in Newcastle. He had left for town driving his horse and buggy, and had a stroke before he reached town. The horse continued on to town, and waited at the customary place in front of the Lowell store. It was not determined how long he had been dead when he was discovered about eight o'clock at night; apparently passersby thought he was asleep. Mary ran the ranch after the death of her husband, and in the 1930s received an award for having one of the few unmortgaged ranches in the area.

One night while she was away visiting her daughter Grace in Auburn, the ranch house burned to the ground, unable to be saved because of a problem with the water pressure. The hired men saved some furniture, a few pictures, and the washing machine. The fruit house across from the main house also burned.

The death of her husband, and the burning of her ranch house, were not the only tragedies Mary Frates Armes had to face: Less than four months later, her youngest son, Joe, was murdered by Mary's housekeeper, Alma Bell, who lived with the Armes family, and with whom Joe was having an affair.

According to the story in the Sacramento Union, an Auburn saloon owner, Manuel Neves, was spreading stories about Alma, who sought to explain them away to Joe Armes, whom Alma claimed was her fiance. Also, she was jealous of Minnie Foster, who also lived with the Armes family in the fruit season, although there was apparently no reason for the jealousy. But Joe wouldnt listen to Alma.

An account in the Placer Herald of Auburn on June 12, 1909, stated that Alma Bell shot Joe because he refused to marry her. She went to the Armes home around 6:00 p.m. where she got Joes pistol, and then went to the cabin where Joe and his brothers were sleeping, saying she wanted to talk to him. About 10:30 that night Joe got up and started to accompany her to a neighbors house. A short while later Joe's brothers Manuel and Frank heard two shots. Going outside, they found Joe with a bullet hole through his heart and Alma gone.

Alma Bell threatened to kill the entire family, and hid in the bushes around the farmhouse. Mary and her daughters stayed in the house, avoiding doors and windows until Alma was found after a three-day hunt. She surrendered to a deputy sheriff, saying she had meant to kill herself, too. She was sentenced and served a term in prison.

Mary Emily Armes died May 9, 1947, at age 87, after an illness of six weeks. She had a sister, Mrs. Joseph Ferry, in Newcastle.

The children of Joseph and Mary Armes, in addition to Joe:

Manuel, who died in Auburn in 1948, married Mary Serpa; Frank, who had fought in World War I, died in 1940; John, who never married, died of a concussion; Mary married Manuel Brown, and then Richard Negley, and died in 1968; Julia T. (1895-1972), a charter member of UPPEC, married Carroll R. Couture, son of Dr. Alfred N. and Dr. Ella R. Couture of Auburn; Evelyn married Edward Eyering; and Grace, who died in 1976, married Harold Harrington of Auburn.

[Elizabeth Couture Slater]

MANUEL P. ARMES (Armas) and his wife, the former FRANCES NOIA said goodbye to the Azores in 1875 and sailed from the island of Flores to the United States to join their sons, Fred and Joseph, who had preceded them to Placer County, and who had written to their parents about the opportunities and the vast lands waiting to be farmed in California. The ship took Manuel, Frances and daughters Minnie, Mary, and Pauline to New York, and from there they made the overland trek to California.

When they arrived in California the Armes family, including the two sons who had preceded them, took up farming and bought an 80-acre ranch a couple of miles northeast of Newcastle. The family eventually grew to seven. Daughter Mary married Frank Peters, and Pauline married Joseph Enos. Frances and Manuel Armes are buried in the family plot in the Auburn cemetery.

Son MANUEL P. ARMES, Jr. was born in 1857 in Flores, and was 17 when he came to the United States. His wife's name was Nancy. Young Manuel worked as a brakeman on the old Central Pacific Railroad between Sacramento and Truckee for several years, and was badly hurt in a train wreck in Bloomer Cut in 1885. He then went to work in the railroad shops in Sacramento for several years before returning to Placer County where he purchased a home and raised fruit at Dutch Ravine. Manuel Jr. died at his home on January 30, 1914 at age 57, after a lingering illness.

Son FRED P. ARMES was born in Flores on February 12, 1857, coming to California with his brother Manuel at age 16. After spending two years at mining in Siskiyou County, together they went to Newcastle where they engaged in fruit-raising, in time purchasing 160 acres which they cleared and set out to orchard. They obtained their start by peddling the fruit and produce in the settlements on the Forest Hill Divide as far as Michigan Bluff. Later Fred Armes purchased an additional 80 acres, which was also set out to fruit.

Freds first marriage was to MINNIE SANTOS, also a native of Flores. She died four years after their marriage, and then Fred spent about a year at Greenwood, Mendocino County, with the White & Company mills as a boss of the logging department. He then returned to his ranch. The brothers then dissolved their partnership and divided the property.

Fred then married ANNIE CASTRO of Oakland on October 26, 1890. She was the daughter of Frank and Annie (Caton) Castro, also from Flores. Frank Castro was a 49er and a pioneer in California.

When Fred sold his ranch at Newcastle, he purchased another one, the Shirland tract, where he lived for about ten years. He then sold it and in 1920 bought 24 acres on the old Sacramento road three-quarters of a mile from Auburn, where he raised fruit.

Fred and Annie Armes had ten children, including George, Fred, Louis, Julia (Holt), Arthur, and Margaret.

[History of Placer and Nevada Counties, 1924; Placer Herald, February 7, 1914]

Jose VIEIRA AZEVEDO was born in Ribeirinha, Pico, in 1849, to Joaquim Inacio and Rosa Mariana Azevedo, who had several other children: Manuel, a partner in the Eagle Winery (see below); Inacio and Domingos who remained in the Azores; Joao, the father of Monsignor Azevedo (see below); Maria Azevedo Silveira of Sacramento; and Mariana Azevedo of Vallejo.

The children of Joaquim and Rosa were orphaned at an early age and were separated. Most of them left Pico for other islands of the Azores, and some immigrated to America.

Jose stayed in Pico doing odd jobs until, at a very early age he worked as a helper on a whaling ship, swabbing the deck, hoisting the sails, and working in the galley. He learned to navigate the ship by the stars when the sea was calm and learned to tell time without a watch.

When he was about 15, he decided to go to America, and in the years of approximately 1865 to 1875 worked his way on a sailing vessel, a long and tedious voyage around Cape Horn to San Francisco. Upon reaching California he decided to travel to Sacramento.

In Sacramento he met a dear friend from Pico, Antonio P. Valine. Both went to work for the Glide family at a dollar a day, working from daybreak to late in the evening. Together they decided to buy 40 acres of land in the Clarksburg area, land that was full of oak trees, plus tullies and blackberry bushes. It took them ten years to clear the land and pay it off.

In 1875 Jose decided to return to his native Pico, and Antone Valine bought his share of the ranch. When Jose arrived in Pico he invested all his money in property. When he was 28 years old he married 14-year-old MARIA Jacienta SILVA. Two years later Jose and Maria decided to move to the island of Terceira, investing all of their money from their Pico properties in more profitable property in Terceira, becoming very prosperous there.

In 1907 Jose decided to return to California, and ten months later his family followed, settling on a farm that Jose had bought from John Boyd consisting of 100 acres on Folsom Road. He planted half of his acreage in grapes and fruit trees, and sold the other half to the Silva brothers, who later opened the Silva Brothers winery. Jose farmed until he was 75 years of age.

He sold his remaining acreage to the Silva brothers in 1924 and bought a home at 723 26th Street, enjoying 11 years of complete leisure. He died January 27, 1935, at age 85. Maria died December 13, 1940, at age 77.

They had ten children, three of whom died young Maria dos Santos at age 12, Manuel at age two, and Conceicao at 18 months. The surviving children: Emilia Macedo, Carmen Bettencourt, Consuelo Silva, Louise Silva, Christine Valine, Natalia Foster, and Joseph Azevedo Jr.

Joao VIEIRA AZEVEDO, brother of Jose above, had left the Azores in 1866, preceded by his older brother, Manuel, who had come to California in 1854. Joao was one of the crew of a sailing vessel that sailed around the Horn to California. Here he farmed in the Clarksburg area, and was quite successful. Eleven years later he sold out and returned to the Azores by way of the Isthmus of Panama.

There he married MARIA IGNACIA AZEVEDO and remained until 1901, when with his youngest son, Anthony, he returned to California, establishing a home in Sacramento. Here he was joined in 1902 by his wife, daughters Rosa Piedade and 16-year-old Maria da Saude, and sons Manuel and John, the future priest. When Father Azevedo was a boy in the Azores, he recalled, his father Joao could talk of nothing but California and his desire to return here.

Joao V. Azevedo John Sr. was one of the founders of the Eagle Winery at the site of the Keating Candy Company at 1515 18th Street.

He died in Sacramento in 1957, and his wife then made her home with her son, Father Azevedo. She died in 1928. Their daughter, Rosa Piedade, was housekeeper to Father Azevedo for 45 years, doing numerous chores at the church before there was an Altar Society. Daughter Maria da Saude, who married Clay W. Chipman, was an expert in needlework, and formerly operated a shop in Sacramento. She was a needlework judge at the State Fair for several years. Their daughter, Mary Adelaide Chipman Jones, sometimes helped her Aunt Rosa with the church chores, and learned to speak Portuguese quite young.

REV. John VIEIRA AZEVEDO, son of Joao V. and Maria Ignacia Azevedo, was born in the Azores November 25, 1880. He began his classical and theological studies in the Azores, completing his theological training at St. Patrick's Seminary in Menlo Park, California. He was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Grace at the Cathedral in Sacramento in 1904. (See Chapter 12, Religion.)

ANTHONY MARIANO AZEVEDO, Msgr. Azevedo's brother, was drafted into the U.S. Army at age 18, and served eight months in France with Battery C, 347th Field Artillery.

After the war he returned to Sacramento where he served as vice-consul of Portugal for the northern California district. He died in Sacramento at age 33.

MANUEL J. AZEVEDO, another brother, born in Terceira, came to California at an early age. In Sacramento he married ROSE MANICA, and they lived on S Street between 18th and 19th Streets. About 1920 Manuel bought a ranch in Natomas on Bayou Way, where he built a barn for the horses, with living quarters on one side where he stayed through the week. He didnt own a car then, so his transportation was a bicycle which he rode 18 miles each way. He usually went home on weekends to get clean clothes and to bathe. His wife, Rosa, didn't like the ranch. Later Manuel converted the barn into a house, and Rosa moved out to the ranch. By now Manuel had a tractor, which made his work easier. He farmed for 50 years, raising a lot of alfalfa. Rosa was very involved in the SPRSI, and rose as high as grand vice president.

[Natalie Azevedo Foster; Mary Adeline Chipman Jones; Sacramento Union article by Charles Prior, Nov. 12, 1941]

JoaQuim LEAL AZEVEDO was born in the Azores on May 14, 1832, and settled in California in 1852 after working his way to Boston with his cousin, Manuel J. Azevedo, and then to San Francisco via Cape Horn.

He spent most of his early life in farming, both in the Azores and in California. After landing in San Francisco, he and his cousin Manuel formed a partnership, and then came to Sacramento County where they were able to accumulate a small fortune in a couple of years through mining, and invested their profits in land at Freeport, Clarksburg, and Grand Island in the Delta. They later disposed of most of the property in small tracts, but retaining land in the Freeport area where they farmed for a number of years, at one time transporting their produce by horse and wagon to Carson City and other mining towns.

In 1869, Joaquim went back to the Azores, there married ROSALIE GARCIA DUARTE, daughter of Manuel Leal Mendes and Josephine Azevedo, and returned in 1888 to farm in the Freeport area. Rosalie was born August 12, 1852.

In partnership with his cousin Manuel (see Manuel J. Azevedo, below), in 1887 the two purchased the old Eagle Winery, located at 21st and R Streets, later moving to 18th Street between 0 and P. They retired from the business when national prohibition went into effect. (See Chapter 10.)

Joaquim died June 18, 1924, at age 91, survived by his widow, five daughters and four sons, three of whom were physicians: Drs. Joseph L. and John A. Azevedo, who practiced in Oakland; Dr. Manuel L. Azevedo of Sacramento; and King L. Azevedo, Mrs. John K. Brown, Mrs. Thomas A. Arthur, Mrs. Nell Arthur, Mrs. John J. De Gloria, and Mrs. Joseph Silva.

Son Joseph AZEVEDO pose Leal de Azevedo) was born September 8, 1874, in Faial where he had attended school, completing his education in Sacramento. In 1895 he enrolled at St. Mary's College, and then studied medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of San Francisco (Cooper's College), graduating in 1901.

He practiced medicine in Sacramento for two years, and then moved to Oakland where he spent the rest of his life. In July 1889 in Oakland he married AMALIA B. GLORIA, the sister of Father Guilherme S. Gloria, and had six children: Dr. Joseph L. Azevedo, Alfred, Alice, Maria and Amalia (Borba). He died December 18, 1938. He had served as medical examiner of the UPEC, SPRSI, and IDES lodges.

[Robert Silva; Mrs. Joseph Silva; Carlos Almeida, in Portuguese Immigrants, UPEC, 1978]

MANUEL J. AZEVEDO was born in the Azores on February 21, 1837, the son of J. A. and Orsa Marianna Azevedo. He attended schools there and then came to California in 1854 with his cousin Joaquim (see Joaquim Leal Azevedo above). After mining, and then vegetable-farming operations, came to the Sacramento Valley in 1861 and settled on a farm opposite Freeport, whee he engaged in ranching until 1872. He then returned to the Azores to retire, but changed his mind and came back to the Sacramento area in 1888. He joined his cousin in organization of Azevedo & Co. in April 1889 and purchased the Eagle Winery. Manuel died in 1909.

He had married MARIA ADELAIDE PEIXOTO in the Azores. They had four children: Frank, who died when he was about college age; Connie Tavaras, who became Supreme President of SPRSI; Emilia Veronica Davis, the youngest, who was a talented pianist, and Joseph F. Azevedo (according to the 1913 Willis history; the 1890 Davis history lists children as John M., Mary A., Frank A., and John A.)

Son Joseph F. AZEVEDO was born March 6, 1886, in Terceira. He attended St. Marys College, at that time located in Oakland, and upon graduation in 1905 went to work with Fort Sutter Bank as a messenger, eventually being promoted to cashier before leaving May 15, 1911 to become assistant cashier of Sacramento Valley Bank and Trust Company. In his later years he became vice president of California National Bank.

On August 28, 1909, he married Ida Nuttall, whose father, Levi Nuttall, for many years worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad shops in Sacramento.

[William L. Willis, History of Sacramento County, 1913; William J. Davis, History of Sacramento County, 1890]

Joseph AZEVEDO, SR. was born February 22, 1863, in Ribeirinha, Pico, Azores, one of six children, the others being Manuel, Frank, John, Mary Vierra, and Marian Enos.

He made his living as a whaler, and came to the United States with his four cousins on a whaleship. Eventually, he settled in the Riverside/Pocket area, bought property, and in 1894, at age 31, married Fatima Philomina Pereira (MINNIE PERRY), who was 16.

Born October 26, 1877, the daughter of Maria da Gloria Silva, she was one of ten children, the others being Mary, Clara, Carrie, Maggie, Emma, Manuel, Antone, Joseph, and William.

Joseph and Minnie had two sons, Joseph and Edward. Together with his brother-in-law, John Joseph goao Alberto) Machado, who married Clara, they purchased in 1900 approximately 53 acres in the Riverside Road area. Part of the acreage included Munger Lake, now Reichmuth Park. Both families lived and farmed there until 1917 when Joao Alberto bought out Joseph. Joseph then bought 600 acres in Natomas and had a beautiful new home built there by M. F. Terra & Sons. He was the first to pioneer the area for farming.

Joseph AZEVEDO, Jr., was born August 26, 1895, in the Riverside area of Sacramento. He and his brother, Edward, worked with their father on the farm, which was incorporated, from 1917 to 1937. Joseph then moved to Rio Linda to start a dairy in 1937, moved again to Fair Oaks, still in the dairy business, and then in 1940 moved to the old McGilvery ranch on Freeport Boulevard, where he farmed and had a dairy until 1942. He later moved into Sacramento City where he took out a real estate license, and retired in 1946 at age 68.

On November 17, 1917, at 22 years of age, he married LILLIAN SOUZA (Lilly), who at age 19 was the first postmistress of Freeport. She was born May 21, 1896, in Freeport. She had two sisters and a brother: Mary Isabella Perry, Eva Inez Machado, and John Souza.

Joseph Jr. and Lilly had two daughters, LaVerne Mae, who died from polio in her early teens, and Beverly Jane, who died January 24, 1987. Lilly died May 16, 1957; Joseph Jr. died August 15, 1977.

[Beverly Azevedo Kroeger]

JOHN LEAL AZEVEDO was born August 12, 1894, in Piedade, Pico, the Azores, and in 1908 at age 14 he came to the United States as a "son of Manuel Silva, one of the partners in the Silva Brothers Winery at Mills Station.

At Mills Station, he stayed with Mr. and Mrs. Joe Bettencourt, and attended the Kelly School on Bradshaw and Lincoln. He worked for Joe Bettencourt and his brother King for a while on their ranches in the Rancho Cordova area, and also on the gold dredgers around there.

On May 1, 1918, in Sacramento, he married CARRIE VERONICA TAXARA, who was born September 18, 1896 in the Grant area. Carrie had gone to Modesto in 1917 or 1918 to visit her close friend and childhood neighbor, Minnie Perry Corey who, with her husband John Corey, was working in Modesto at the time. The Coreys were from the Pocket area of Sacramento. While there Carrie met John Azevedo, who operated a tractor for King Bettencourt on his ranch. During her visit, Carrie helped Minnie, who was a cook. When Carrie returned to the Grant from her visit, John followed.

John just missed going to the army in World War I. He had received his draft letter from the Government, but the war ended before he had to go.

He started work at the Brickyard around 1918, and that's where he and Carrie started their family of 11 children, beginning with Veronica, who was born at the Brickyard; Ernest, born in Freeport; and the rest Wilbert, Lucille, Arthur (who died at age five), Bernice, Richard, John Jr., Dolores, Carolyn, and Rosalie born in Sacramento.

The Brickyard was shut down during the Depression, so in that period John worked for King King in the Holland Land area, and for Frank Rogers in the Pocket. He also worked on the barges at Front and M Streets for the Delta Lines.

When the Brickyard restarted, he returned, working a short time setting brick for the kiln being built, and then worked on the dredger at the clay pit (now Greenhaven Lake). The dredger caught fire and burned beyond repair, so the Brickyard bought a dragline which John operated for a couple of years, during which time he dug at least half of the present Green-haven Lake. He also operated the locomotive which ran on a narrow-gauge track between the clay pit and the Brickyard. (See Chapter 10 for a description of the brick-making process.)

The Azevedos lived on Riverside Road (now Park Riviera) opposite todays Lewis Park in the Pocket. They moved from there in 1960 to 5860 14th Street. John died April 3, 1974, and Carrie on September 8, 1982.

[Ernie Azevedo]

John LAWRENCE AZEVEDO was born in 1862, the next-to-oldest of seven brothers from Ribeirinha, Pico. From age 14 to 17 he had studied for the priesthood, but then gave it up and immigrated to the Sacramento area in the early 1890s with his brother Frank, the youngest in the family. They were the only two to leave the Azores for the U.S.

The two brothers built a house in Perkins in 1893 on the Jackson Road, and in the early 1900s established a small winery there, buying their grapes from other growers. Sometime later the brothers sold the winery and parted company, Frank going into farming in Natomas where he raised beans, and John farming in the Mountain View, Calif., area. His seminary-acquired knowledge of Latin equipped him with the basics of other languages to do some interpreting for the courts occasionally.

In Mt. View John met ROSA AGNES SILVA BALCAO of San Leandro, whose father, Antone Balcao had come from Hawaii, and whose mother, Rosa Silva, was from the Azores. John and Rosa married, and they had three children born in Mountain View.

At some point they sold the ranch in Mountain View and purchased a summer resort at Calistoga, moving into a 14-room house, renting out cabins to tourists, and making wine for the Government. Came Prohibition and they lost everything, moved back to the Sacramento area where another child was born, and John went to work for his brother Frank in Natomas. He then went to work at Manlove Station east of Perkins managing the McGillivray ranch, until becoming a victim on January 10, 1920, of the World War I fiu epidemic, and died on June 6, 1920, at age 58. His wife, Rosa Agnes, died March 16, 1937, at age 52.

John and Rosa Azevedos four children were Clarence, born on October 21, 1909; Rose, born in 1910; Dorothy, born in 1912; and Mildred, born in 1919. Rose married Ernest Akers, Dorothy married Harold Williams, and Mildred married Ted Bodiou.

Clarence Azevedo, the oldest child, worked at a grocery store in Brighton, next to Perkins after his father died when Clarence was 10-years old, working after school from 4:00 to 7:00 p.m. for 10 cents an hour, then going home to milk the family cow, and peddle his four quarts of milk on horseback before returning to the small home in Brighton to do his homework by the light of a kerosene lantern. For a one-month period, when he was 14 years old, he ran the grocery-gas station operation by himself when the owner went on vacation.

In 1923 he bought a used Ford touring car for $180. At the time the County paid out-of-town students $5.00 a month transportation money to attend high school, and Clarence loaded up his car with himself and six other Sacramento High School students, collecting the $5.00 from each for a total of $35 a carload. After school he returned to his 10-cents-an-hour grocery job and the milk delivery route. In the summer he worked in the Rooney hop fields cultivating and irrigating for 25 cents an hour.

Stating that he was 21 instead of his actual age of 18, Clarence applied for a job with Safeway one afternoon, and without waiting for the store to call him, he showed up the next morning at 7:00 a.m. just in case someone meanwhile had quit to make a job opening.

Thus began a 16-year career with Safeway, beginning at the 25th and J Street store peeling onions. He then graduated to the order department, and impressed his bosses when he took an order from a Sloughhouse farmer for $132 worth of groceries. He worked from 7:00 a.m. until the work was done, whatever the late hour, at $22.50 a week.

It wasnt a life of "all work and no play," for he played semi-pro baseball as a catcher for baseball teams in Perkins and Florin for 15 years, from the age of 15, a contemporary of players like Joe Marty and Stan Hack, "though not in their league!" he admitted.

At age 18 he married Alice Banks, age 16, and they had one child, Phyllis Jean. They were living in Stockton at the time, where Clarence had been transferred for 10 months. Later, back in Sacramento, he was successively manager at various Safeway stores, eventually winding up in 1938 at a new store at Freeport and 4th Avenue with just himself and a butcher on the premises, building up the business from a first-week total of $315 to the highest volume Safeway store in northern California within six months, and employing seven clerks.

In addition to managing the store, he set up a training course for new employees, earning $5.00 for each employee hired and trained. So impressed was management that he was offered the job of supervisor of 27 stores, based in Siskiyou County.

But meanwhile Alice Azevedo had opened a dress shop in Oak Park in 1935 with $750 of Clarence's year-end bonus money from Safeway, and Clarence elected to leave Safeway on July 10, 1943, to join Alice in the operation of California Apparel which by that year had expanded to four stores in Sacramento, one in Roseville, and one in Stockton.

Frequent vandalism forced the operation out of Oak Park, and in 1952 the Azevedos sold all of their stores to concentrate on one location in the Fruitridge Shopping Center, operating there for 17 years until they sold the store on April 28, 1986. In its last full year, 1985, the store did a $2.7-million business.

In the meantime, Clarence had gotten involved in politics upon his appointment to the Sacramento City Council in 1953 to complete the term of Roy Nielson who had been elected to the State Assembly. He ran later that year for election to the post, being one of 30 candidates, and came in third. He ran again in 1955, and this time came in first. By virtue of collecting the most votes he became Mayor, repeating in 1957 by winning in 162 out of 165 precincts. His political involvement went beyond local affairs, as co-chairman of John F. Kennedys and Edmund G. Pat Browns electoral campaigns in Sacramento.

The springboard for his role in politics was undoubtedly his community activism, being a member of virtually every civic organization in the city. He had been president of the Red Cross, the Cancer Society, Goodwill, and Easter Seal; and vice president of the Chamber of Commerce for 10 years, to name just a few of his affiliations. In the Portuguese-American community he belonged to Cabrillo Civic Club and the IDES.

He left the City Council in July 1960. In 1961 he was appointed to the State Fair Board, served eight years as president and one year as manager, and was chairman of the committee formed to build Cal Expo. In 1962 he was one of 19 founders and vice president of the Bank of Sacramento, sold in 1969 to Security Pacific.

[Clarence L. Azevedo]

ANTONIO BALIEL (Antonio Souza da Silva) was born in Pico, and reached California as a whaler, leaving his ship in San Francisco. He then traveled by boat up the Sacramento River to the Freeport/Clarksburg area, where he settled around 1860, working for a time as a farm laborer, fishing, and clearing tulies.

(Because there were already so many Silvas in the area, the name was changed to Baliel, a corruption of the word for whale baleia an apt name for a former whaler.)

He married MARIA Da SOUZA of Faial, and they had four sons, Joseph, John, Frank, and Manuel. Father and sons farmed wheat, barley, onion seed, onions, dried beans, and cabbage for market. They transported the wheat and barley on John Baliel's tugboat to the shipping dock up the Sacramento River as far as Colusa. They also hauled by wagon-drawn horses.

They bought a small farm a quarter-mile south of the Freeport Ferry in Yolo County, where they made their home and grew onion and carrot-seed crops to sell, and fished in the winter. Antonio achieved a considerable reputation in two other areas, however: tree-grafting and water-witching for the digging of wells.

He was known as a proficient tree-grafter, being able to graft four citrus fruits, orange, grapefruit, lemon and lime cuttings, whereby the citrus flavors would never cross-mix. His fame reached to Sacramento, and people from the city came for him in their horse-driven buggies to have him do their grafting. He didnt do it for money, but only to accommodate a friend or neighbor, or in exchange for a favor.

The second unusual skill for which he was renown was ground-water surveying by the water-witch method. The apparatus he used was a hand-cut very tender green willow twig, very flexible, with a V fork at the end. He would peel the outer skin off the willow, trim the stem base to about five inches, and cut the two forks to about 24-inches each.

He would grasp each end of the fork with his hand, then point the single twig stem toward the ground, and walk slowly, holding the stem downward. The twig would react when he reached water, bending slowly. If the water level was closer to the surface, the twig would bend more, and when the underground water pressure was stronger the twig would quiver and bend faster. It was said that he never failed to find the proper place to dig a well by this method.

Their children:

Joe BALIEL was an excellent carpenter, known for his boat-building and for his building of homes exhibiting skilled craftsmanship. One example of his fine craftsmanship, still standing, is a home he built in 1916 for Joseph and Anna Soto Freitas a half-mile south of the Freeport Bridge, later sold to Joe and Minnie Borges in 1919, and now occupied by the Borges son, Joe and wife Celia. It is still in excellent condition. He also made violas with a unique sound and quality, selling to a number of local musicians.

Joe Baliel married twice, first to ISABEL Joseph, producing children Joe Jr. and Hattie Baliel Manica; and then to ANNA LUCAS, their children being Henry, Raymond and Dorothy. In later years Joe moved from the Clarksburg area to Rio Vista.

John BALIEL built boats and barges in Freeport with his brother Joe in a shop situated out over the river bank at the water's edge a little south of the Freeport Ferry landing on the Yolo side. They also built bean and grain harvesters, also model passenger and row boats of all kinds. John was also famed for his wooden decoys ducks hand-carved with detailed intricate feather carvings and delicately hand-painted, highly regarded by hunters for their realistic quality. They are collectors' items today. One of his decoys is at the Edward Dutra Dredge Museum in Rio Vista and a few others have been seen in other museum collections. John was born in 1871 and died in February 1940 at age 69. He never married.

Antonio's son Manuel had a blacksmith shop on top of the levee next to the river where they made many of their tools and did blacksmith work for some of the neighbors. They made rims for wagon wheels and chains for pulling equipment, and built homes and boats.

MANUEL BALIEL was a blacksmith for many years and also farmed the home ranch, his father's property. He married MINNIE DAMION, daughter of Damiao Antonio (Antone Damiao) and the former Annie Silva. She was raised by her stepmother, Rosa Alvernaz Damiao. (See ALVERNAZ.) The children of Manuel and Minnie Baliel: Harold, Manuel, Raymond, Arthur, Alfred, Louis, Stanley, Anna Baliel Branscombe, Adeline Baliel Nevis, and Louise Baliel Beale. Manuel died November 15, 1925. His widow, Minnie, also born in Clarksburg, died in 1956 at age 72. The Baliel family home burned down completely in later years.

FRANK BALIEL was born in Clarksburg in 1874. He married MARY SARMENTO, daughter of Joseph Dutra Sarmento and Maria Thomazia Ventura, both from Faial. Frank and Mary moved to Sacramento to U Street between 3rd and 4th where Frank worked as a street cleaner, a busy job during horse-and-buggy days. Before that, between 1906 and 1907 right after the earthquake, he worked in San Francisco excavating after the devastation.

He was a lover of horses, and was active in buying and trading with other horse traders. While working for the City of Sacramento he furnished his own team of beautiful Morgan horses worth $400 per team, and furnished his own wagon, required in those days to qualify for the job. Also required was a brush-broom and shovel. Frank's horses were so trained that all he had to do was tie the reins to the wagon brake, issue a command to the horses, and they would slowly move on as he ordered.

Frank and Mary Baliel had three children: Edna, Clarence and Bernice. Edna was born at 11th & T Streets, as was Clarence, who died at the age of two. Bernice was born in 1907 at V Street between 18th and 19th. The little cabin where Bernice was born was moved from V Street to the Clarksburg area by the method of log-rolling down Freeport Road, taking a number of days to complete the move. This cabin still stands in Yolo County old and abandoned.

Frank and Mary then moved to the Glide District in Yolo County, starting farming there in 1912. Edna and Bernice attended the Lisbon School in Yolo County. In 1917 Frank bought the Silver Dollar Ranch in Natomas on San Juan Road, commuting between the two ranches for a few months until their house was built. It was at that time that the Garden Highway levee, the first flood-control levee, was built There Frank lived until his death in 1940, his wife having died in February 1928.

Daughter Bernice and husband Joe Silva continued to live and farm Frank's Natomas home place for some time. Their children, Walter and Loretta Silva, were born there. Edna married Frank Souza, also a Natomas farmer. They had four children: Lorraine, Rosemarie, Franklin, and Victor.

[Bernice Baliel Silva; Edna Baliel Souza; Adeline Baliel Nevis; Grace Rose; Robert Heringer, in Recollections, an article on Clarksburg history.]

ARTHUR BALSHOR (Alexander Arthur Belchior) married GRACA JoaQuina NUNES SECCO in 1902 in Urros, Portugal, in a marriage arranged by the bride's mother. Graca, born November 25, 1882 to Manuel Jose Secco and Josefa da Conceicao, was 17 years younger than her husband. Initially she balked at the prearranged match, but relented under family pressure.

With children Antonio, Marcelino, Lucinda, Joseph, and Theresa, born in Portugal, the family decided to leave Portugal, and on February 11, 1911, they boarded the ship Ortisio in Porto, bound for Hawaii to work in the sugarcane plantations. During the six-month trip around the Horn, Lucinda and Joseph died in a severe measles epidemic on board ship. Graca fought valiantly to save her two children, but because of primitive living conditions aboard ship and no medicines, the children died. In Hawaii, they lived with other Portuguese families in a small compound which came to be known as "The Five Houses." In 1912 Graca bore another son and named him Joseph in memory of the son she lost aboard ship. Tragically, in 1914 little Joseph died, but Graca became pregnant again, and gave birth later the same year to another Joseph, named for the two others who died. Graca delivered the latter Joseph herself, completely unattended.

In 1915 several of the families in the compound decided to leave Hawaii for Sacramento, and the Belchiors followed later that year. Arthur, Graca and their four children, Antonio, Theresa, Lucinda, and Joseph, arrived on the mainland May 8, 1916, and made their way to Sacramento, moving into a home on 2nd Street between T and U, in the "Arizona" neighborhood.

Arthur was employed as a farm worker and Graca took in boarders. Arthur eventually became a farm contractor and when he went to farm camps he took the children and Graca, who would cook and wash clothes for 30 men.

In 1917 Graca gave birth to another son, Manuel Vincent. She then decided to become a midwife, delivering around 40 babies. In 1919, at their second residence at 306 S St., Graca gave birth to John Bernard, and in 1921 to daughter Dozendia, who died of diphtheria in 1923. In 1922 Arthur and Graca bought a home at 315 U Street. In January 1923 their eldest son Antonio, just shy of his 20th birthday, was shot and killed in an altercation in the White Front Cafe on 4th Street between J and K Streets. Meanwhile, daughter Theresa had married John Morais in 1923, and made their home above the grocery store he owned on the corner of 3rd and U Streets. In 1925 they sold the store and moved to Walnut Grove.

In 1924 Graca gave birth to another son, whom she planned to name Antonio for the son killed the previous year. Arthur and the other members of the family did not agree with Gracas selection, and decided to change the name. On the day of the baptism at St. Elizabeth's church, Graca stayed home to cook the festive dinner, and Arthur and the family members decided to name the baby Alberto.

Arthur continued with his farm work until 1926, then worked at a cannery in Ryde where he suffered his first heart atack. Graca and daughter Lucinda, in order to support the family, went to work at a cannery at 2nd and P Streets. Arthur died December 15, 1929 at the age of approximately 62. Graca and children Lucinda, age 18, and Joseph, age 15, obtained work in the prune ranches and also in the asparagus fields. Graca cooked and washed clothes for 15 men.

After the farming season she and Lucinda worked at the cannery. Lucinda and family friend Manuel Morais would take care of the house and younger children when Graca worked on the ranches. Lucinda sometimes worked a double shift at the cannery and would walk home, arriving at 4:00 a.m., get a few hours sleep, and then get her brothers off to school. John, age 13, also worked at the cannery to supplement the family income.

Young Alberto worked at several jobs, including three paper routes, selling to local bars the fiowers he obtained from neighborhood women, and selling programs at the L Street Arena.

In 1946 Graca took in as a boarder Marie Sequeira, the young daughter of a widowed friend from Dixon, so she could attend secretarial school. Marie and Al Balshor married in January 1948 while he was apprenticing for Relies Florist. In 1950 he opened his own florist shop at 930 0 St., and then in 1972 moved to 2771 Riverside Blvd. where he is presently located.

Manuel, who worked hard as a youngster to contribute to the support of the family, quit school to go into commercial fishing with brother Joseph, then later worked for his brother Al before working for the Sheriff's Office.

In 1943 Joseph was inducted into the army. He was a front-line medic when he was killed at the Anzio beachhead in the Casino battle in Italy. After Joseph's death Graca quit her job at the cannery.

Lucinda began working at Azevedos California Apparel, and in 1948 married Joe Drago. In 1949 John finished his education, received his teaching credential, and became a teacher.

In 1965 Gracas health began to fail. She died December 14, 1974, at age 92.

The name Belchior was changed at school registration, being recorded phonetically as Balshor.

[Excerpted from Graca, published 1972 by Deanna Prisco and Marie Balshor.]

JOAO JOSE BARANDAS was born in Tras os Montes, northern Portugal, in 1896. When he was 17 he wanted to go to America, so his father arranged for him to go to Pinole to live with an uncle. He had arrived by ship in New York in January 1916.

He worked for a railroad company in Pinole. A year later, in December 1917, his sweetheart, ANNA ELIUZA GARCIA, arrived from Portugal to live with her father, Antonio Maria Garcia, who came to the U.S. from Tras os Montes on March 2, 1916. On February 11, 1918, they were married. Antonio lived with them while continuing to work for farmers in Natomas, until he died.

John and Anna Barandas came to Sacramento and in 1927 moved to Natomas where John worked for the Natomas Company Water District. In 1930 he and Anna began farming on a small scale while Joao continued working for the Natomas Co., eventually farming full-time.

They raised five children Manuel, Mary, Josephine, Elvera, and Tony all of whom attended Jefferson School in Natomas. By the time John died in May of 1965 he and Anna owned several hundred acres in Natomas. Anna died August 27, 1979.

Manuel Barandas married Delores Ferreira, daughter of Lauro Ferreira, in September 1941; Mary Barandas married Joe Eufrazia; Josephine Barandas married Lauro Ferreira Jr.; Elvera Barandas married Manuel Bastiao. There are four generations of Barandas still living in Natomas.

Manuel Barandas, who originally farmed with his father, began farming on his own in 1950, and now operates Barandas Farms. He has also been active in real estate, and served as a director of First Commercial Bank. He and Delores raised five children: Richard, who died at age 21; John, who worked for the Telephone Co.; Gloria Barandas Naify; and James and Thomas, farmers, with their own corporation.

[Mary Ferreira Rosa]

Jose BASTIAO was born in Legares, Portugal, in 1893; his wife Maria Louisa was born there in 1896. Jose came to California, leaving his wife and small son in Portugal, and worked as a common laborer cutting asparagus and doing other farm work in the Delta. Later when he had enough money he sent for his wife and son Frank who was then three years old.

Maria cooked for the asparagus crew and washed their clothes to make some extra money. They had two more children Lavina and Manuel. They saved enough to get started in farming. A friend, Joe Alves, was farming in Natomas, and Maria and Jose came to Natomas to farm with him in 1930. Their son Frank worked for his father for several years, then took sick and died. By now Manuel, who was born in 1928, was old enough to work with his father and they farmed together for five or six years in 1956.

When Joe Bastiao died, Manuel continued farming with his mother. They lived on the Sandercock ranch and farmed a lot of ground where today is located the Bel Air Market and shopping center on Truxel and West El Camino.

Manuel married Elvera Barandas and they raised three children Dennis Bastiao, Cynthia and Kathy.

When Manuel died in 1977, his son Dennis took over the farming operation. Manuels widow then lived with her daughter, Lavina Benvenuti. There are four generations of Bastiaos living in Natomas yet.

[Mary Ferreira Rosa]

MANUEL SILVA BETTENCOURT left Sao Jorge in the Azores for Massachusetts, and then went on around the Horn in a whaler to San Francisco in the late 1840s, about the same time as did Joseph Miller, also settling, like Miller, around the Davis-Woodland area. Later he bought the 290 acre ranch where the IDES Hall in Clarksburg now stands. The ranch extended to the west to one mile from the Glide Ranch.

He then sold the ranch and took the family to Terceira where they lived for one year. When he and the family returned he bought the Manuel Silva ("Barbeiro") ranch north of the town of Freeport, where he operated a dairy. After that he ranched in the Grant and lived there about ten years. From there he went to an area called the Cosumnes in the Mather Field area where he raised grapes, barley and wheat. He stayed there until he died in 1905.

He married twice, first to MARY AMELIA NEVIS of Faial, the daughter of Mary Nevis, Joseph Millers mother. She died in 1879 at age 37. He is buried at St.Josephs Cemetery in Sacramento with MARY DELFINA BETTENCOURT, his second wife, who died August 3, 1901, at age 65. (A gravestone there lists Manuel M. B ttencourt 5/8/05, 69 years, presumably the same individual notwithstanding the different middle initial.)

He made some untimely business dealings and lost much of his money after he sold his ranch in Clarksburg where the hall is located. Apparently he owned only that ranch and the Manuel Silva ranch.

Manuels children were all by his first wife: Mary, Carrie, Amelia, Adelena, Tony, Manuel, Frank, King, Joe.

After the ranch was sold it was divided into mostly 20-acre parcels and became the ranches to the east of Corey, Bettencourt, Jacinto, Contente, Damion, Marks, Alamo, Leal, Joe Semas, John Azevedo, Manuel Semas.

[Maggie Valine Pimentel]

John SILVA BITTENCOURT ("Piloto") was born in Faial in 1841 and there married MARIA PHILOMENA SILVEIRA, born the same year.

The Bittencourts immigrated to the United States, arriving in the Clarksburg area of Yolo County where they made their home on a 20-acre ranch adjacent to the IDES hall grounds.

How John acquired the nickname "Piloto" is not known, but thats how he was identified. His brother, ANTONE BITTENCOURT, one of the earliest Portuguese settlers in Yolo County, farmed nearby. He was the father of Mary Bittencourt Valine, and grandfather of Maggie Valine Pimentel.

Mary Silveira Bittencourt had no relatives in California, but did have a brother who was a priest in Faial. A kind and lonely person, Mary stuttered terribly, possibly the result of being gruffly treated and ignored by her husband. He was said to be a gadabout in his day, a macho man whose behavior, in those days, was to be accepted by their wives no matter what scandal he caused. Whatever happened, a wife would never leave or divorce. It was said that when Maria paced about the house, John would tell her to take a walk to the end of the ranch, and when she returned he would tell her to do it again.

The neighborhood children would try to heckle Maria by picking apples off her trees near the levee road, only to be frightened away by her pretended gruffness.

In Marias younger years she was called by her neighbors a feiticeira because she practiced witchcraft. She would mix patents and try to cast spells upon people she knew. She became quite superstitious, and actually believed she had the power to bewitch, perhaps to cover up her loneliness and mistreatment.

One witchcraft effort that took place in Maria's home was experienced by one of her young neighbors, Anna Soto. Anna and some young friends stopped by to visit Maria Bitten-court one afternoon. She regarded Anna as a nice young lady from a nice family, a desirable candidate upon whom to cast a spell to lure her into marrying her youngest son, Joe Bitten-court.

The young ladies had entered through the back door, which in country homes was always the main entrance, and then were invited to sit in the parlor. After some conversation, suddenly there appeared, much to Anna's horror, a freshly spread white powdery chalkline across the parlor floor beginning near Anna's chair. No one saw how it got there. Anna became frightened, and knew immediately that she was not to cross over that white line. However, in a flash, she got up, turned around, and made a sudden exit through the rarely used front door. She vowed never to return to that house again.

Joao Silva Piloto" Bittencourt died in 1892 at the age of 51, and Maria died in 1927, age 86. Their children, all of whom but Mary were born on their Clarksburg farm and all attended the Lisbon School in Yolo County:

MARY GLORIA BITTENCOURT, who was born in Faial in 1864 and came to the U.S. with her parents at age eight, married MANUEL F. SILVA (Biscaia). They had a grocery store in the Oak Park district of Sacramento. (See SILVA.) Mary wrote poetry in both English and Portuguese. She died June 22, 1958, at age 94. Manuel died in 1923. In her later years, Mary lived with her daughter, Frances Gillespie, on 7th Avenue, until her death.

RITA SILVEIRA BITTENCOURT married Joseph CONTENTE of Clarksburg in 1886 when she was 15 and he was 29. Joseph worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad. It was said that after the wedding Rita went home, changed from her wedding dress, and went outside to play ball with other children, earning criticism from her elders. (See CONTENTE.)

FRANCES BITTENCOURT married FORTUNATO FONTES, who worked at Friend and Terry Lumber Co. on Front and S Streets in Sacramento. Frances was as superstitious as her mother. She felt she had been favored by fortune to have prospered in life, and believed therefore that if she continued to improve herself good luck would continue. So annually, in the month of July, she would purchase a complete new outfit of clothing, from underwear and corset to outer garments, including shoes and purse, in keeping with her need to "improve. (See FONTES.)

PHILOMENA BITTENCOURT (Minnie) married ANTONE SOTO (1874-1963), who worked for a freight company, and was the operator of Soto's Saloon. Minnie was a tea-leaf reader; a fortune teller, some called her. Minnie and Tony had one child, Adeline.

John S. BITTENCOURT married CARRIE PETERS of Newcastle, who operated a small store in that community.

MANUEL S. BITTENCOURT, a bachelor, moved south to Victorville.

Joe BITTENCOURT married GABRIELA MARTIN, who was born in the Azores, the oldest daughter of Antone and Maria Martin. (See MARTIN.) Joe and Gabriela had two daughters, Dora and Ethel. Joe farmed in the Natomas District, invested in property, and was a director of the Sacramento Solons baseball team.

[Grace Freitas Rose; Helen Alamo; Adeline Baliel Nevis; Frances Machado; Frank E. King.]

ANTONIO BORBA was born on November 17, 1874, the youngest son of Manuel and Isabel (Pedros) Borba, prominent and well-to-do in Sao Jorge, the Azores. He worked on his father's farm in Sao Jorge, and attended school there. In 1891 he left there for a visit to his brothers, Manuel and Joseph, already in the U.S., but decided to stay, and worked on a farm near Trenton, Mass.

He arrived in California in 1892, and worked on a ranch in Alameda County while his family resided in Oakland. In 1904 he invested in a foothill ranch of 60 acres at Mt. Vernon, and in March that year moved his family to Placer County. He sold 15 of his acres, and kept 45, which he developed into orchards and vineyard. When they left Oakland they had barely enough money to pay for transportation to Placer County, having lost their savings in a fire.

On June 19, 1898, he married ROSE AVILA, who was born in Moraga Valley, Contra Costa County, on January 12, 1879, the fifth of ten children of John and Gumincinda Avila. Her father was from Sao Jorge, and her mother was a descendant of Don Juan Moraga, who was given a grant of land by the King of Spain for military services. The Moraga Valley was named for him.

The children of Antonio and Rose Borba: Marguerite Sedgely; Clara, who died in infancy; Albert, who died at age 14; Eleanor and Henry, who attended Auburn High School in the classes of 1926 and 1927, respectively; Marion, John, and James.

Antonio Borba was a member of the Auburn Fruit Growers' Association, and a U.S. citizen.

[History of Placer and Nevada Counties, 1924]

Joseph MARTINEZ BORBA was born in Terceira, October 8, 1878, the eldest of ten children of Joseph Martinez Borba, Sr. and Anna Felicia Ignazia. The others: Mary, John, Jesse, Rosie, Ignacia, Francis, Frank, Manuel, and Joseph.

Joseph Borba was educated in the schools of the Azores, and lived at home with his parents until he came to California at age 22 and worked at a dairy farm at Menlo Park for $15 a month. He later worked on the California Transportation Company's boats at $35 a month. Then he settled in the Delta, near Isleton, where he leased 40 acres for three years to raise vegetables, then bought 55 acres on Grand Island in the Delta, and four years later bought a 155-acre orchard for a total spread of 205 acres devoted to fruit, asparagus, beans and potatoes.

In 1905 he made a trip back to the Azores to visit his parents and other relatives, and stayed five months. In 1906 he married MARY CAROLINE da ROSA of Pico, the youngest of four children of Joseph and Anna da Rosa. Joseph and Mary Caroline had one child, Anna.

His first wife died in 1917, and Borba then married MARY de MELLO, born on Andrus Island, and daughter of Luiz de Mello, a farmer. Borba and his second wife are the parents of five children: Joseph, Mary, Manuel, Vernal, and Edna.

He also owned a home in Pacific Grove, to which the family made frequent trips.

FRANCISCO BOTHELLO was born April 3, 1857 in Arrifes, Sao Miguel, and went to work building roads in Santa Cruz, Flores. There he met EMELIA RODRIGUES, born the same year in Santa Cruz. When he was 23 and she 21 they married in Santa Cruz. They had 11 children, but only six were raised to adulthood: Jose, John, Fernando, Maria, Joaquina, and Filomena. Their mother, Emelia, died April 28, 1905, at age 48, in Santa Cruz, Flores. Joaquina had married the day before her mother died.

Sons Joe and John, with brother-in-law Constantine Lopes, went to the U.S. first, going to Nevada initially. John then went to Fresno to milk cows before moving to Placer County in 1913. Constantine worked in Milpitas.

Daughter FILOMENA BOTHELLO, who was born June 21, 1901, in Santa Cruz, and her father went to Placer County in 1921, Filomena staying with her sister and brother until she married ANTONE ROSE. (See ROSE.)

There were very hard times during the Depression. Filomena worked hard, raised a pig, cow, chickens, had a garden, baked bread and made soap from pig lard and lye. She packed fruit in the summer, worked all day and then at night packed pears for Joe Machado for about three hours. It took 18 years for Filomena and her husband, Antone Rose, to pay $5,000 for their ranch. She sold eggs at nine cents a dozen during the Depression. The fruit prices were down and some years the frost and hail ruined the crops. A lot of people lost their ranches.

Her sister and brother-in-law bought a ranch for $13,000. They owed $7,000 when they lost it during the Depression. She made 15 cents an hour picking cherries in 1930, and was paid 20 cents to pack a box of cherries. Both 1939 and 1940 were bad years, with no profit being made.

Francisco Bothello died July 14, 1936, and is buried in Auburn.

[Filomena Bothello Rose]

Jose SOUSA BRAZIL was born December 14, 1896 in Cinco Ribeiras, Terceira, one of 16 children of Bento Sousa Brazil and the former Maria Margarida Costa. Five of the children died in infancy. In addition to Jose, the surviving children were Antonio, Maria Can-dida, Teresa, Virginia, Margarida, Rosa, Bento, Guitera, Mariana, and Manuel, in addition to Jose.

As a young adult he immigrated to the United States, to New Bedford, Mass., where some of his brothers and sisters were already living. His brother Antonio was already living in Detroit by the time Jose was born.

Upon arriving on the East Coast, he set out immediately for California by train, wearing a shipping label on his lapel to identify him, as he spoke no English. Unfortunately, Detroit was not on his route across the U.S. and Jose was unable to meet his brother Antonio. They corresponded with each other, and were making plans to meet, but Antonio died in 1937.

Jose's future bride, ANNA MONIZ, was born in Praia de Vitoria, Terceira, on June 25, 1900, the daughter of Jacob and Maria August (Roque) Moniz. Anna's mother was already deceased, and the widower Jacob Sr. and his sons Antonio and Jacob Jr. were already in California when it was decided that daughter Anna and her two younger brothers, Belchior and Jose, would join them there, spending their first few years in Newark, Calif. It was there that Jose met and courted Anna and where they married.

Soon after, they moved to the Central Valley and went into the dairy business, remaining in that field until he retired. At some point he worked as a longshoreman. Eric Hoffer, the famed longshoreman-philosopher, mentions Jose Brazil in his book, Working and Thinking on the Waterfront.

Bill Moniz (he dropped the name Belchior) lived in the Sacramento area for a few years, and there engaged in boxing, though not for long after his nose was broken at least twice. He was a good friend of Johnny Brazil (no relation), a talented and noted musician in the Sacramento area. Bill acquired bit of fame through his participation in the annual Calaveras County Jumping Frog Jubilee at Angel's Camp, Calif., in 1975, when his frog "Ex Lax made a single leap of 17 feet 6-3/4 inches, the longest at the time. It was duly noted in the Guinness Book of Records, and featured in a Universal Press Syndicate cartoon strip. Bill was flown to New York and appeared on the program "What's My Line" for the accomplishment.

Jose and Anna Brazil had three children: Joseph, an architect; Angie, who married Frank Lewis; Corinne, who married Albert Chaves; and David, who married Mary Soares, the daughter of Antonio and Catherine (Silva) Soares.

[David P. Brazil]

John KING BROWN (real name Azevedo) was born January 6, 1840, in Pico. As a youngster he worked on a sailing ship as a cabin boy for a captain named Brown. He became known as "Browns boy and later decided to keep the name since itwas the name he was commonly called. As a young man in Boston, around 1863, he married a girl from Faial named Anna F., born September 1842. Son Frank was born there. They then decided to come to the Sacramento area, sailing around the Horn, landing in San Francisco, and then making their way to Clarksburg around 1865 where they settled on a 100-acre ranch between the Freeport bridge and the town of Clarksburg.

There were no levees at the time, so the houses and barns were built up on little hills because the land flooded every winter, with the river water surrounding the buildings. Living conditions through the winters were very difficult. Later Chinese laborers were imported to build the first levees, using wheelbarrows.

John King Brown farmed the property until his death in 1906 at age 66; Anna had died June 25, 1890, at age 48. Their children: Frank, John, Manuel (drowned at age 11), Joaquim "King, Mary, Joseph, Anna, Marion, Emanuel, Filamina "Minnie, George, Albert, Rose and Clara.

Son KING BROWN, who never married, lived on the ranch with his parents, and took over when his father died. Later he also purchased the Merkley ranch across the river in the Riverside area. His two-story Victorian home was on a knoll which was a burial ground for a local Indian tribe. He lived there about ten years in the 1920s, and then returned to Clarksburg.

He adopted and raised his sister Marion's son, King Engwell, with the help of another sister, Rose, who lived with King.

John BROWN was a familiar figure in the Bank of Italy at 6th and K Streets (before it became Bank of America) in the 1920s. Tall and congenial, he was hired as a guard of the bank. Most of the Portuguese families of the time did their banking there and John, in his brown uniform, would greet and speak to everyone who came in. Earlier, until Prohibition, he had worked at the Eagle Winery, and then as a deputy sheriff.

EMANUEL BROWN was captain of the dredger Argyle which helped build up the Sacramento River levees in the 1910s and 1920s. FRANK BROWN was also a dredgerman, being captain of the Sierra, also doing levee work. MINNIE BROWN married FRANK ENOS, who had the gas station in the Riverside area. ALBERT BROWN farmed considerable acreage in Freeport. GEORGE BROWN had a china store at 16th and T Streets with his home upstairs. Ladies would learn to paint dishes and other pieces of china at the shop. It was then fashionable to paint one's own china or paint pieces to present them as gifts.

[Roslyn Waxon Mosher; Melvin Enos; Helen Brown]

DOMINGOS A. BRUM was born March 19, 1882, and came to the United States in 1901 from the island of Pico, and settled in Georgetown, Calif., before going to Folsom. He married ISABEL B. RELVAS in 1908 and spent the rest of his life in Folsom. He worked in the mines, for Folsom Lumber Co., and Eldorado Lime Co. Isabel "Birdie" Brum was born November 16, 1888. Domingos and Birdie had no children. He died September 11, 1979, and Birdie died December 8, 1964. (See RELVAS.)

[Adeline F. Serpa]

From the "Portuguese Pionners of the Sacramento Area" by Lionel Holmes and Joseph D'alessandro -Published by: the Portuguese Historical Society - P.O. Box 161990, Sacramento - California 95616.



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